Na śmietniku u ekoludka.

Wyszukiwarka Forumowa:

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608

Behavior

Conservative and Liberal Brains Might Have Some Real Differences​

Scanners try to watch the red-blue divide play out underneath the skull

In 1968 a debate was held between conservative thinker William F. Buckley, Jr., and liberal writer Gore Vidal. It was hoped that these two members of opposing intellectual elites would show Americans living through tumultuous times that political disagreements could be civilized. That idea did not last for long. Instead Buckley and Vidal descended rapidly into name-calling. Afterward, they sued each other for defamation.


The story of the 1968 debate opens a well-regarded 2013 book called Predisposed, which introduced the general public to the field of political neuroscience. The authors, a trio of political scientists at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Rice University, argued that if the differences between liberals and conservatives seem profound and even unbridgeable, it is because they are rooted in personality characteristics and biological predispositions.


On the whole, the research shows, conservatives desire security, predictability and authority more than liberals do, and liberals are more comfortable with novelty, nuance and complexity. If you had put Buckley and Vidal in a magnetic resonance imaging machine and presented them with identical images, you would likely have seen differences in their brain, especially in the areas that process social and emotional information. The volume of gray matter, or neural cell bodies, making up the anterior cingulate cortex, an area that helps detect errors and resolve conflicts, tends to be larger in liberals. And the amygdala, which is important for regulating emotions and evaluating threats, is larger in conservatives.


Advertisement
While these findings are remarkably consistent, they are probabilities, not certainties—meaning there is plenty of individual variability. The political landscape includes lefties who own guns, right-wingers who drive Priuses and everything in between. There is also an unresolved chicken-and-egg problem: Do brains start out processing the world differently or do they become increasingly different as our politics evolve? Furthermore, it is still not entirely clear how useful it is to know that a Republican’s brain lights up over X while a Democrat’s responds to Y.


So what can the study of neural activity suggest about political behavior? The still emerging field of political neuroscience has begun to move beyond describing basic structural and functional brain differences between people of different ideological persuasions—gauging who has the biggest amygdala—to more nuanced investigations of how certain cognitive processes underlie our political thinking and decision-making. Partisanship does not just affect our vote; it influences our memory, reasoning and even our perception of truth. Knowing this will not magically bring us all together, but researchers hope that continuing to understand the way partisanship influences our brain might at least allow us to counter its worst effects: the divisiveness that can tear apart the shared values required to retain a sense of national unity.


Social scientists who observe behaviors in the political sphere can gain substantial insight into the hazards of errant partisanship. Political neuroscience, however, attempts to deepen these observations by supplying evidence that a belief or bias manifests as a measure of brain volume or activity—demonstrating that an attitude, conviction or misconception is, in fact, genuine. “Brain structure and function provide more objective measures than many types of survey responses,” says political neuroscientist Hannah Nam of Stony Brook University. “Participants may be induced to be more honest when they think that scientists have a ‘window’ into their brains.” That is not to say that political neuroscience can be used as a tool to “read minds,” but it can pick up discrepancies between stated positions and underlying cognitive processes.


Brain scans are also unlikely to be used as a biomarker for specific political results because the relationships between the brain and politics is not one-to-one. Yet “neurobiological features could be used as a predictor of political outcomes—just not in a deterministic way,” Nam says.


To study how we process political information in a 2017 paper, political psychologist Ingrid Haas of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and her colleagues created hypothetical candidates from both major parties and assigned each candidate a set of policy statements on issues such as school prayer, Medicare and defense spending. Most statements were what you would expect: Republicans, for instance, usually favor increasing defense spending, and Democrats generally support expanding Medicare. But some statements were surprising, such as a conservative expressing a pro-choice position or a liberal arguing for invading Iran.


Haas put 58 people with diverse political views in a brain scanner. On each trial, participants were asked whether it was good or bad that a candidate held a position on a particular issue and not whether they personally agreed or disagreed with it. Framing the task that way allowed the researchers to look at neural processing as a function of whether the information was expected or unexpected—what they termed congruent or incongruent. They also considered participants’ own party identification and whether there was a relationship between ideological differences and how the subjects did the task.


Liberals proved more attentive to incongruent information, especially for Democratic candidates. When they encountered such a position, it took them longer to make a decision about whether it was good or bad. They were likely to show activation for incongruent information in two brain regions: the insula and anterior cingulate cortex, which “are involved in helping people form and think about their attitudes,” Haas says. How do out-of-the-ordinary positions affect later voting? Haas suspects that engaging more with such information might make voters more likely to punish candidates for it later. But she acknowledges that they may instead exercise a particular form of bias called “motivated reasoning” to downplay the incongruity.


Motivated reasoning, in which people work hard to justify their opinions or decisions, even in the face of conflicting evidence, has been a popular topic in political neuroscience because there is a lot of it going around. While partisanship plays a role, motivated reasoning goes deeper than that. Just as most of us like to think we are good-hearted human beings, people generally prefer to believe that the society they live in is desirable, fair and legitimate. “Even if society isn’t perfect, and there are things to be criticized about it, there is a preference to think that you live in a good society,” Nam says. When that preference is particularly strong, she adds, “that can lead to things like simply rationalizing or accepting long-standing inequalities or injustices.” Psychologists call the cognitive process that lets us do so “system justification.”


Nam and her colleagues set out to understand which brain areas govern the affective processes that underlie system justification. They found that the volume of gray matter in the amygdala is linked to the tendency to perceive the social system as legitimate and desirable. Their interpretation is that “this preference to system justify is related to these basic neurobiological predispositions to be alert to potential threats in your environment,” Nam says.
After the original study, Nam’s team followed a subset of the participants for three years and found that their brain structure predicted the likelihood of whether they participated in political protests during that time. “Larger amygdala volume is associated with a lower likelihood of participating in political protests,” Nam says. “That makes sense in so far as political protest is a behavior that says, ‘We’ve got to change the system.’”


Understanding the influence of partisanship on identity, even down to the level of neurons, “helps to explain why people place party loyalty over policy, and even over truth,” argued psychologists Jay Van Bavel and Andrea Pereira, both then at New York University, in Trends in Cognitive Sciences in 2018. In short, we derive our identities from both our individual characteristics, such as being a parent, and our group memberships, such as being a New Yorker or an American. These affiliations serve multiple social goals: they feed our need to belong and desire for closure and predictability, and they endorse our moral values. And our brain represents them much as it does other forms of social identity.
Among other things, partisan identity clouds memory. In a 2013 study, liberals were more likely to misremember George W. Bush remaining on vacation in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and conservatives were more likely to falsely recall seeing Barack Obama shaking hands with the president of Iran. Partisan identity also shapes our perceptions. When they were shown a video of a political protest in a 2012 study, liberals and conservatives were more or less likely to favor calling police depending on their interpretation of the protest’s goal. If the objective was liberal (opposing the military barring openly gay people from service), the conservatives were more likely to want the cops. The opposite was true when participants thought it was a conservative protest (opposing an abortion clinic). The more strongly we identify with a party, the more likely we are to double down on our support for it. That tendency is exacerbated by rampant political misinformation and, too often, identity wins out over accuracy.
If we understand what is at work cognitively, we might be able to intervene and try to ease some of the negative effects of partisanship. The tension between accuracy and identity probably involves a brain region called the orbitofrontal cortex, which computes the value of goals and beliefs and is strongly connected to memory, executive function and attention. If identity helps determine the value of different beliefs, it can also distort them, Van Bavel says. Appreciating that political affiliation fulfills an evolutionary need to belong suggests we should create alternative means of belonging—depoliticizing the novel coronavirus by calling on us to come together as Americans, for instance. And incentivizing the need to be accurate could increase the importance accorded that goal: paying money for accurate responses or holding people accountable for incorrect ones have been shown to be effective.
It will be nearly impossible to lessen the partisan influences before the November 3 election because the volume of political information will only increase, reminding us of our political identities daily. But here is some good news: a large 2020 study at Harvard University found that participants consistently overestimated the level of out-group negativity toward their in-group. In other words, the other side may not dislike us quite so much as we think. Inaccurate information heightened the negative bias, and (more good news) correcting inaccurate information significantly reduced it.
“The biology and neuroscience of politics might be useful in terms of what is effective at getting through to people,” Van Bavel says. “Maybe the way to interact with someone who disagrees with me politically is not to try to persuade them on the deep issue, because I might never get there. It’s more to try to understand where they’re coming from and shatter their stereotypes.”



Rights & Permissions

ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)​

author-avatar


Lydia Denworth is a Brooklyn, N.Y.–based science writer and a contributing editor for Scientific American. She wrote about the neuroscience of stuttering in our August 2021 issue. She is co-author of Parent Nation.
Credit: Nick Higgins

Recent Articles by Lydia Denworth​

Read This Next​

Behavior

Trolling for Truth on Social Media

Joan Donovan
Behavior

A Political Scientist's Guide to Following the Election

Michael Latner | Opinion
Behavior

Why Trump-Favoring Voters Ignored a Deadly Hurricane Warning

Rachel Nuwer
Behavior

What AIDS Taught Us about Dealing with COVID-19

William A. Haseltine | Opinion





The Partisan Brain: An Identity-Based Model of Political Belief​

Author links open overlay panel


https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.004Get rights and content

Democracies assume accurate knowledge by the populace, but the human attraction to fake and untrustworthy news poses a serious problem for healthy democratic functioning. We articulate why and how identification with political parties – known as partisanship – can bias information processing in the human brain. There is extensive evidence that people engage in motivated political reasoning, but recent research suggests that partisanship can alter memory, implicit evaluation, and even perceptual judgments. We propose an identity-based model of belief for understanding the influence of partisanship on these cognitive processes. This framework helps to explain why people place party loyalty over policy, and even over truth. Finally, we discuss strategies for de-biasing information processing to help to create a shared reality across partisan divides.


Section snippets​

The Role of Identity in Political Belief​


The Party told you to reject the evidence of your eyes and ears. It was their final, most essential command. (George Orwell, 1984)

In Orwell’s famous novel, 1984, he described how a totalitarian government could manipulate the minds of its citizens through a state of perpetual war, government surveillance, propaganda, and aggressive police. The main protagonist in the book was responsible for constantly revising the historical record (i.e., actively creating falsehoods) to ensure that it was

Why Political Identities Shape Belief​

Political parties tend to reflect people’s ideologies, namely a system of beliefs and values that represents one’s worldview. Ideologies stem from a combination of cultural influences and affinities, and are reflected in biological predispositions and personality characteristics 6, 7. These ideological orientations have a strong genetic basis [8], emerge early in life 9, 10, and manifest in brain structure 11, 12. Because identification with a political party is a voluntary and self-selected

How Political Identities Shape the Components of Cognition​

Over the past century political psychologists have provided extensive evidence that partisan identities alter political judgment and behavior 14, 15, 43, 44. For instance, partisan identities influence reasoning on political cognition [45], including beliefs about political figures [46], political facts [47], support for policies [5], scientific issues [48], social issues [49], and beliefs in the expertise of scientists [50]. Building on neuroeconomic models of decision-making [51] and

How Can We Reduce Biases Related to Partisanship?​

Because citizens in a democracy are expected to make informed choices [4], either by electing representatives who reflect their beliefs or by voting directly in referenda, it is important to understand how to make them more receptive to facts and less receptive to fake news. Developing a shared reality is also crucial for having fruitful policy debates. In this section we propose strategies from our framework that are likely to diminish the influence of partisanship on belief. We focus on

Concluding Remarks​

It is urgent to understand and address how partisanship shapes belief. Political polarization has increased dramatically in the USAv over the past few decades and is likely to continue to increase as people tune out ideologically-incongruent newsvi, curate echo chambers on their social media accountsvii, and move to ideologically like-minded parts of the world [100]. It is thus a modern paradox how our increased access to information has isolated us in ideological bubbles and occluded us from

Acknowledgments​

The authors would like to thank members of the New York University Social Perception and Evaluation Laboratory for insightful comments on this manuscript. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Foundation grant 1349089 awarded to J.J.V.B. and Marie Skłodowska-Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship703401 awarded to A.P.


 
Ostatnia edycja:

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608

A Neurology of the Conservative-Liberal Dimension of Political Ideology​

Mario F. Mendez
, M.D., Ph.D.
Published Online:7 Mar 2017https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16030051

Abstract​

Differences in political ideology are a major source of human disagreement and conflict. There is increasing evidence that neurobiological mechanisms mediate individual differences in political ideology through effects on a conservative-liberal axis. This review summarizes personality, evolutionary and genetic, cognitive, neuroimaging, and neurological studies of conservatism-liberalism and discusses how they might affect political ideology. What emerges from this highly variable literature is evidence for a normal right-sided “conservative-complex” involving structures sensitive to negativity bias, threat, disgust, and avoidance. This conservative-complex may be damaged with brain disease, sometimes leading to a pathological “liberal shift” or a reduced tendency to conservatism in political ideology. Although not deterministic, these findings recommend further research on politics and the brain.
Political ideology divides people, societies, and nations, often with serious consequences. Although the word “politics” derives from the Greek word for relating to other citizens, in practice it is more about the power to influence the social and economic behavior of others. Political ideology, on the other hand, is the philosophy that guides this power or influence, and ranges from support for traditional values and the status quo to favoring change and an egalitarian society.1 This range corresponds best to a conservative-liberal axis, and most people fall somewhere along its length, with relatively few individuals at the far extremes.1,2 Elucidating the underlying sources for extreme political ideology, such as variations on the conservative-liberal axis, is important for understanding the political differences that divide us.
There is increasing evidence that neurobiological factors mediate where people fall on a general conservative-liberal axis that involves social, cultural, religious, economic, and other domains, as well as political ideology. Many studies now indicate that differences between extreme conservatives and extreme liberals are not entirely due to differences in socioeconomic, cultural, or other learned attributes, or rational consideration of the issues.3 Conservatism-liberalism is also associated with differences in personality, attention, memory, perception, emotional reactions, problem-solving, and response choices.4 Although neurobiological mechanisms affecting conservatism-liberalism are not clearly deterministic, some investigators suggest an evolutionary protective origin, with some situations favoring more conservative orientations and others permitting more liberal ones.4
Further support for neurobiological mechanisms comes from clinical observations of patients with acquired brain disease. Neurological disorders that affect socioemotional areas of the frontal lobes and adjacent regions can change where one falls on the conservative-liberal spectrum, primarily toward the liberal.5 Neurologists and psychiatrists have not considered the underlying neurobiological mechanisms for these changes in light of current knowledge of conservative versus liberal differences. These patients, and the current behavioral neuroscience literature, offer the opportunity to synthesize a formulation of the underlying neurobiological structures and mechanisms associated with conservatism-liberalism and how this affects political ideology.
The present review summarizes the pertinent scientific literature on the conservative-liberal axis with a focus on studies that assess this axis in the political domain. This review covers five research areas: 1) personality differences, 2) evolutionary and genetic information, 3) cognitive and psychophysiological processes, 4) neuroimaging studies, and 5) brain disease. This literature has a number of important qualifications. First, the majority of these studies have determined conservatism or liberalism based on self-reports, inventories, or a focus on extremes of the conservative-liberal spectrum. Second, many of the behavioral studies involve small numbers of subjects and the presence of difficult to control confounding variables. Third, conservatism-liberalism has a critical influence on political ideology, but it is not the only determinant, and individuals can fall on different parts of this axis, depending on the domain involved. Finally, and most importantly, any conclusions about neurobiology derived from this literature must be placed in the context of the overwhelming influence of life experience, including the fact that people change their political beliefs and that political beliefs vary with geography, occupation, and other factors. Moreover, most individuals manifest both conservative and liberal tendencies, often varying with context and domain. With these qualifications, there is emerging evidence for a specific neurobiological circuitry that involves a right-sided anterior brain “conservative-complex” for preservation of the status quo and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) roles in responding to change and promoting approach.

Part 1: Personality Trends​

Psychologists and others have long speculated about an association of personality types or traits and political ideology. An early formal theory of such an association emerged in the 1930s, when the German perception psychologist, Erich Jaensch, proposed a theory of personality derived from generalization of someone’s perceptual “purity,” or the ability to integrate sensory phenomena into a single dynamic whole.6 His “li-type” (inwardly integrated) personality displayed integrity regarding societal goals, was conservative, group-oriented, and unambiguous in judgments, and prevailed among Nazis. In contrast, his “S-type” (synesthesia) was lax in mixing of the senses, tended to be liberal, imprecise, and individualistic, and prevailed among communists, Parisians, and Jews. Among personality theories developed subsequent to World War II, the literature is most supportive for a relationship between conservatism-liberalism and the personality traits of the five-factor model (“big five” of openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism).7 Despite significant variations from country to country, studies point to an association between conscientiousness traits among people with politically conservative values and openness to new experiences among those with politically liberal values.2,8
The emphasis on conscientiousness and openness is evident in other reported personality differences (see Table 1).1,9 On personality, self-report, and other behavioral measures, high political conservatism is associated with preferences for stability, conformity, tradition, and order and structure.1,2,10,11 High political liberalism, in contrast, is associated with preferences for creativity, curiosity, novelty-seeking, and new experiences.1,2,10,11 Highly politically conservative people eschew ambiguity and disorganization and prefer closure and limited shades of gray (“hard categorizers”).1,2,10,11 Highly politically liberal people tolerate ambiguity and disorganization and favor flexibility and taking on cognitive conflicts.1,2,1012 A proposed example is preference in art; political conservatives often prefer traditional art, whereas political liberals are often more interested in abstract art.13 Carney et al.2 even found greater orderliness among political conservatives compared with political liberals in their personal and office spaces.2 Moreover, when evaluating faces, perceivers may distinguish political conservatives from political liberals, judging conservatives as more powerful and liberals as warmer.14

TABLE 1. Reported Brain and Behavior Affiliations for General Conservative Versus Liberal Orientation With Implications for Political Ideologya
Enlarge table
There are a few other results from personality studies with significant implications for political ideology. First, personality evaluations using measures other than the big five tend to show similar differences for the conscientiousness-openness distinction, such as more security and conformity with political conservatism and more universalism and self-direction with political liberalism.15 Second, in comparison to political liberals, political conservatives are more cautious in exploring novel situations, and they experience ambiguous facial expressions as more threatening,16 suggesting a greater focus on self-protection from negative outcomes.17 Third, among political conservatives compared with political liberals, negative stimuli or information leads to greater avoidance behavior.1820 For example, when required to make computerized movements, political conservatives compared with political liberals have trajectories with greater avoidance of negative stimuli.21 Avoidance of negative stimuli may be the reason that political conservatives score lower on openness to experience and higher on conscientiousness while conforming more to social norms.22 Fourth, political conservatives, compared with political liberals, may be more likely to attribute negative behavior to a person’s internal motivations, as compared with external factors.23,24 Finally, changes in personality over time do not predict changes in political attitudes, suggesting that political ideology is not entirely dependent on personality traits.25
Not surprisingly, these personality studies verify a distinction between conservative conscientiousness for tradition and for the prevailing order, compared with liberal openness to novelty, ambiguity, and change. In the political arena, these traits coincide with conservative-liberal voting and other political activities. This distinction also coincides with evidence for neurobiological differences in conservatism-liberalism from evolutionary theory, cognitive and physiological studies, and neuroimaging.

Part 2: Evolution and Genetics​

Evolutionary psychologists stress that politics and alliances are necessary in order to influence one’s position in social groups and the direction of one’s group4 and have proposed the parasite-stress theory as a major driving force for the evolution of conservatism-liberalism.26,27 The parasite-stress theory views people as having inherited parasitically modified behavioral tendencies aimed at avoiding those who bring the greatest risk of infection and transmitted disease to one’s social group. Those who do not conform to in-group norms and members of outgroups with unfamiliar cultures and behaviors bring the greatest risk of infection and are avoided the most. In other words, parasitic stress may promote in-group collectivism or “groupishness” and group social norms,2830 as well as conservative social and sexual attitudes and distrust of strangers,26,3032 all of which defend against the effects of parasites.32
This “behavioral immune system” works through a basic instinct to avoid contamination via the experience of disgust from disease-laden cues and people who may harbor infectious agents.30,33 In comparing political conservatives with political liberals, investigators report greater disgust sensitivity, especially for contamination disgust and violations of the sense of purity,3437 and greater functional MRI (fMRI) responses to images with a disgusting theme, such as mutilated bodies.38 Just showing people disease-related images can lead to increasing feelings of avoidance,39 and inducing disgust with disgusting images or sensations can both boost the physiological immune response and increase prejudice to outgroups.26,33,40 Inducing disgust can heighten the sense of moral violations and shift moral judgments to the conservative side.41
Social psychologists have also proposed the moral foundation theory as a source of an evolutionary derived basis for moral behavior, with consequences for general conservatism-liberalism.42 This theory posits that moral instincts evolved to generate rapid, intuitive moral judgments, such as care/harm, fairness/cheating, loyalty/betrayal, authority/subversion, and purity/disgust.42 Those who are very conservative emphasize loyalty to the in-group, submission to authority, and a sense of purity, whereas those who are very liberal emphasize minimizing harm to others and maximizing fairness.43 There are challenges to the moral foundation theory, however, including that it is overly dismissive of conscious deliberation and that these intuitions may not be heritable, stable over time, or predictive of subsequent changes in political ideology.44
Although most political orientation is not directly inherited, twin studies and the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene have linked personality traits and evolutionary intuitions with political ideology.4547 In a sample of more than 12,000 twin pairs, the development of political attitude was about 40% dependent on genes,47 and, in another large twin study, the heritability of political conservatism was 64.5% for men and 44.7% for women.48 A few studies have reported an association between specific genes and conservative-liberal behavior or with political attitudes.45,4952 Genes encoding certain receptors to dopamine, specifically the DRD4 gene on chromosome 11, were associated with variations in conservative-liberal personality traits.53,54 Two large studies have linked variations in the DRD4 exon III tandem repeats to political ideology putatively based on the sensitivity to dopamine uptake and the need for higher dopamine.49,53 Among 1,771 students in Singapore, those with two copies of the 4-repeat allele on the DRD4 gene were more politically conservative,53 and among another group of 1,941 individuals, those with 7R+tandem repeats, in the context of having more friends, were more politically liberal.49
These two theories from evolutionary psychology, the parasite-stress theory and the moral foundation theory, plus the limited genetic studies, converge in their deductions. The parasite-stress theory concludes that there are relationships between increased conservative social and sexual attitudes, reminders of cleanliness, and increased physiological responses to disgusting images.37,55 The moral foundation theory concludes that people with strong conservative views are most sensitive to violation of sexual and body purity, and those with more liberal views are sensitive to violation of harm or fairness.56 Together with the genetic evidence, these findings support an underlying neurobiological basis for conservative-liberalism effects on political ideology.
 

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
part 2

Part 3: Cognitive and Physiological Studies​

Personality differences and evolutionary theories may be reflected in how individuals respond, cognitively and physiologically, to environmental stimuli. In general, the further one is on the conservative spectrum, the more likely one is to respond to negative aspects of environmental stimuli, as opposed to positive aspects.2224,57 This “negativity bias” is evident in studies showing that negative images shown to political conservatives, compared with political liberals, results in a greater, faster, and longer attentional focus on the images and greater physiological measures of arousal to them, as well as a stronger tendency to avoid them.55,58 For example, on presentations of valenced words on an emotional Stroop task, people with politically conservative views respond more slowly to negative words, suggesting that negative information automatically captures their attention.58 On a dot-probe task, political conservatives are more likely to direct their attention toward spatial locations where the negative information was presented.58 Physiologically, political conservatives, compared with political liberals, tend to have increased skin conductance responses to negative or aversive aspects of the environment.55,58,59 On eye-tracking of negative images, political conservatives, compared with political liberals, are faster to fixate on them, spend more time gazing at them, and have a stronger tendency to move away from them.55,60 Although multiple memory systems are involved in political decision making,61 political conservatism is also specifically correlated with negativity bias in remembering more negative than positive information or scenes.57,62
In addition to negativity bias, high conservatism is associated with a sense of threat or a perception of danger.1,10 Those with politically conservative versus politically liberal views perceive ambiguous faces as more threatening,16 respond to threatening stimuli with more aggression,1 and have greater blink startle responses and skin conduction responses to unexpected or potentially threatening images.59 On behavioral and eye-movement responses during a visual search task for happy and angry faces, political conservatism correlated with speeded detection of angry versus happy faces suggesting speeded response selection to the perception of threat.63 In a related study of websites and speeches, political conservatives tended to reference the known past, whereas strong liberals considered the uncertain and potentially more threatening future.64
There are conservative-liberal differences in language use and visual perception that specifically support the distinction between in-group conformity and individualistic novelty-seeking. In a novel study of language use among partisan Twitter followers, those following Republicans, presumed the more politically conservative, use more words emphasizing group membership (in-group identity, national identity, religion), first person plural pronouns, tentative words, and references to achievement, government, law, and opponents.65 Those following Democrats, presumed the more liberal, use more emotional words (feeling related, anxiety-related, positive emotions, expletives) and first-personal singular pronouns, as well as references to uniqueness, culture, and entertainment.65 The most differentiating word, however, is the greater use of the article “the” among conservatives, possibly suggesting a greater emphasis on authority or formality (e.g., “the” Methodists or “the” African Americans). On visual perceptual tasks based on Navon-like figures and the Ebbinghaus illusion, political conservatives show greater perceptual constancy and context-dependency and display more global shape perception, whereas political liberals are more context-independent and aware of perceptual details.11
In thinking styles, too, there are notable conservative-liberal differences. Conservatives tend to use “gut-reaction” heuristics and more step-by-step methodical analyses, whereas liberals tend to be more reflective (e.g., on the Cognitive Reflection Test) and prone to sudden insight solutions.66 Paradoxically, political conservatives seem to rely both on rapid intuition and on an inflexible, systematic analysis that can lead to errors of commission when the task demands change.12,67 For example, in an evoked-related potentials (ERP) study using the Go-No-Go task, political conservatives more than liberals persisted in making the usual expected responses in No-Go trials, which signal that responses should change.12 In contrast, during these same No-Go trials, the political liberals had larger ERP-related ACC activity, which signals that stimulus patterns are changing and may require a corresponding change in responses.12 Among political liberals, these findings point to a greater sensitivity to changing one’s usual pattern of responses.12,68 In a meta-analysis of over 22,000 participants, political liberals had a preference for deep thought and a rejection of simple solutions.1 Parenthetically, in a study of social conservatism-liberalism, liberals were less field dependent with more independent contemplation than conservatives.29
In summary, among political conservatives, the cognitive and physiological studies demonstrate greater negativity bias, sense of threat, and emphasis on formal group membership, compared with political liberals exposed to the same stimuli. These findings, along with differences in thinking styles, are the basis of a “conservative complex,” as suggested by personality studies and evolutionary psychological theories.

Part 4: Neuroimaging Studies​

Neuroimaging studies suggest that political ideology involves conservative-liberal differences in the amygdala, insula, and ACC.4,69,70 Just being interested in politics has increased activity in the amygdala and the ventral striatum,71 and encoding party preference activates bilateral insula and the ACC.69 An MRI study of 90 young adults shows that political conservatives, compared with political liberals, have greater gray matter in the right amygdala,72 and an fMRI study involving a risk-taking task shows that political conservatives have greater activity in the right amygdala.73 The association of political conservatism with the right amygdala,72 a structure that is bilaterally sensitive to emotional saliency, especially fear, suggests an increased processing of potential signals for threat.74 Although the anterior insula has a prominent role in the experience of disgust, brain responses to disgusting stimuli may show a more distributed pattern of differences between political conservatism and liberalism,38 consistent with a differential sensitivity for disgust among political conservatives. The unexpected association of political liberalism with activity in the left posterior insula in one study may reflex an additional role of the insula in the expression of interpersonal trust.75 Finally, political liberals have greater gray matter and increased ERP activity in the ACC,12,72,73 consistent with a sensitivity for processing signals for potential change.
Several areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are additionally implicated in political ideology. The inferior frontal gyrus, particularly on the right, may be directly involved in risk aversion.76 Activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), which has a role in emotionally based experiences that are “positive” or “negative”5,77, increases when just thinking about political issues,78 and there is both VMPFC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) activity when taking the perspective of one’s own political candidate.79 The DMPFC further participates when there is need for emotional regulation about politics, such as when focusing on opposing politicians or their faces, processing implicit measures of party membership bias, or associating one’s own candidate with unpleasant words.70,80
Although not consistent, the right DLPFC may have a greater role in resolving good versus bad biases, partisan differences, or conflicts between fairness and self-interest,81,82 and, in one fMRI study, there was a clear association of right DLPFC activation with political conservatism.83 Another fMRI study of depressed patients showed left rather than right DLPFC activation with heightened preferential processing of negative information,84 and a positron emission tomography study showed left middle frontal gyrus (DLPFC) activation during a negativity bias condition.77 Finally, noninvasive stimulation of bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information has resulted in a significant increase in politically conservative values,85 and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right, but not left, DLPFC has reduced the rejection of unfair offers when they are in conflict with self-interest.86 Ultimately, the right DLPFC may have a greater role in mediating emotion-based conflicts and may interact with the right VLPFC, amygdala, and anterior insula in forming the neuroanatomical substrates of a conservative complex.

Part 5: Evidence from Brain Disease​

Brain disease can alter political orientation and other enduring self-concepts and, thereby, offers another window to the neurobiological circuitry of political ideology. Although publications in this area are sparse, one recent report of 134 participants with a history of penetrating TBI directly assessed the effects of the TBI on several political dimensions.87 Political conservatism-liberalism was not changed as much as a decrease in “radicalism,” or the degree to which political statements deviate from those of the average population, in association with bilateral lesions of the VMPFC.87 In another study of bilateral damage to the VMPFC, behavioral scales administered to 10 patients showed increased levels of submissiveness to authority and religious fundamentalism and beliefs.88 Finally, in a study of voting decisions among seven patients with adjacent lateral orbitofrontal cortex lesions, their political decision making relied more on first impressions of physical attractiveness rather than on perceived competence.89 In summary, these findings indicate that damage to the VMPFC and adjacent areas may alter political decision making, and specific VMPFC damage decreases the emotional valence of experience and shifts political judgments to more “rule-based” as opposed to emotional decisions.90
The prototypical disease that alters personality and may alter political ideology is behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). This disease presents with combinations of disinhibition, apathy or abulia, loss of empathy, stereotypical behaviors, dietary behavioral changes, and dysexecutive features.91 These patients have the foci of their disease in the ACC, VMPFC, anterior insula, adjacent anterior temporal lobe that includes amygdala, and the corresponding salience network.92 Investigators have described some bvFTD patients with right-sided predominant disease as capable of easily changing their self-concepts.5 For example, Miller et al.5 reported a 63-year-old previously conservative woman with bvFTD who became “politically opinionated” about her political preferences and also had outspoken anticonservative views to the point of confronting strangers. Her dress became more causal and frumpy; she developed an interest in animal rights; and she altered her preference for collecting crystal and jewelry to collecting stuffed animals.
It is only the patients with bvFTD who have asymmetric right frontotemporal involvement who may have alterations in political ideology, religion, or preferences in dress and hobbies.5 In bvFTD, asymmetric right-sided involvement is associated with a general decrease in the appreciation of negativity-threat-disgust.9396 Patients with bvFTD have a particular reduced emotional evaluation of negative scenes, but not of positive or neutral ones93; hence they have a reduced negativity bias. Patients with bvFTD also have reduced attention to aversive threat,94 and they have decreased reactivity to disgusting stimuli.95 Right frontal damage in bvFTD can also impair the drive for self-protective avoidance.96 These reports of patients with bvFTD and other brain diseases lend support to the concept that right-sided frontotemporal disease results in either shift to liberal behavior or a reduced tendency to conservatism.
 

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
part 3

Discussion​

The literature on political ideology indicates a neurobiological circuitry for mediating the conservative-liberal dimension of political ideology.3 This literature, although variable and often flawed, suggests the existence of a “conservative complex” in the right anterior brain (see Figure 1). Recognizing that there is a neurobiological basis for conservatism-liberalism does not mean that life experiences and social learning are not major determinants, or that the neurobiological underpinnings determine, rather than reflect, conservative versus liberal attitudes. Nevertheless, neurologists and psychiatrists have recognized patients with right frontotemporal brain disorders resulting in changes in conservative-liberal behavior with consequences for political ideology.5
FIGURE 1. Schematic Diagram of the Conservative Complex on the Right, More Active in Conservatives Than in Liberals, and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC), More Active in Liberals Than Conservativesa
a Various regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) contribute to political thought and ideology, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Laterality is not as established for the PFC contribution, but at least for the DLPFC suggests greater right than left involvement.
Psychological studies document differences between highly politically conservative and highly politically liberal participants. Political conservatives compared with liberals favor in-group conformity and out-group exclusion consistent with evolutionary behaviors for pathogen avoidance.40 Beyond differences in personality traits9 (see Table 1), the literature emphasizes differences in sensitivity and reactivity to negative stimuli, threat, and disgust between those on the extremes of a political conservative-liberal axis. Political conservatives, compared with political liberals, are more likely to interpret, attend to, remember, and respond to negative aspects of environmental stimuli, especially if they are novel and different.22 This “negativity bias” is evident in studies showing that political conservatism compared with liberalism is associated with greater, faster, and longer attentional focusing on negative images and greater physiological measures of arousal to them.55,59 Political conservatives compared with political liberals have a greater sense of threat from the same stimuli and show larger physiological responses to ambiguous stimuli.1,10,16,59 Political conservatives compared with political liberals are also more prone to respond with disgust to various situations, particularly if they violate a sense of purity.35,37
Neuroimaging studies point to structures involved in a “conservative complex” primarily in the right frontotemporal region of the brain. In a structural MRI study, those with political conservative views versus those with political liberal views had greater gray matter in the right amygdala,72 a structure sensitive to fear and threat. Another fMRI study showed that political conservatives had greater activity in the right amygdala when risk-taking.73 Although prior fMRI studies have not found lateralization of emotional face-processing, including fearful faces, to the right amygdala,97,98 recent human and animal studies suggest a more nuanced lateralization of low intensity, rapid, automatic, and explicit recognition of fear and threat to the right amygdala with more delayed and detailed processing on the left.98103 The anterior insula may be involved in generating disgust, and the right ventrolateral PFC participates in overall self-restraint.104 Finally, frontal structures and their amygdalar and other connections participate in an approach-avoidance dichotomy where left-sided activation results in approach to appetitive stimuli and right-sided activation results in withdrawal from aversive stimuli and avoidance of risk taking.1820,98,105107 Together, these right-sided structures appear to mediate conservative behavior, including political conservatism, and constitute a brake on change, maintaining stability, and protecting the status quo.
In addition to this “conservative complex,” there must be an “energization” or motivation for alternative action. The origin of this energization may be a preserved ACC, possibly lateralized to the left and consistent with the left hemisphere’s propensity for “approach” behavior.19,20,97,108,109 The ACC monitors changes in stimulus patterns and potential conflicts or ambiguity and redirects attention for resolving conflict and choosing new actions.110,111 In brain disease, a change toward liberal behavior requires not only an attenuation of the conservative complex brake, but also the ACC responding to stimuli with a choice for change.
There are many limitations to this literature and discussion of conservative-liberal effects on political ideology and the brain. First, there are reservations regarding the generalization of these findings, particularly given studies with small numbers or difficult-to-control confounding variables. Conservatism-liberalism is only one factor, albeit an important one, in determining political ideology. Individuals vary greatly, if not primarily, on how conservative or liberal they are, depending on the specific social or economic issue and the cultural or social context. All people are both conservative and liberal across different domains and to varying degrees, contexts, and times in their life, and they can change their political ideology. Furthermore, many of the studies presented here have involved participants on the extreme ends of the political conservative-liberal spectrum. Second, investigators often use self-report to determine political ideology. This further limits the conclusions, as individuals’ true political ideology may not entirely correspond with their self-perception or self-description to others. Third, these findings do not indicate an endorsement of any political ideology. Conservative and liberal behavior each has advantages for individuals and society. Some situations profit more from conservatism and others from liberalism. Finally, the presentation of a neurobiology of conservatism-liberalism does not indicate a deterministic outcome. Differences in local brain activity or anatomy could be the result, not the cause, of a developmental process with social determinants or may primarily function as propensities subject to environment and learning.
In conclusion, the literature points to a conservative complex involving negativity bias, threat, disgust, and avoidance. On studies of political conservatism-liberalism, those with stronger politically conservative tendencies, compared with those with more politically liberal orientations, have more psychological and physiological reactivity to negative stimuli, accompanied by a greater sense of threat, sensitivity to disgust, and tendency to avoidance. This conservative complex involves a right-sided anterior brain network that includes the amygdala, the anterior insula, and areas of the PFC. A change in conservative-liberal orientation away from conservatism and toward liberalism in neurological disorders may require attenuation of this conservative complex, with ongoing ACC activation for change. These conclusions from the current literature require verification with rigorous prospective research on politics and the brain.

From the Department of Neurology and the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles (MFM); and Neurology Service, Neurobehavior Unit, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles (MFM).
Send correspondence to Dr. Mendez; e-mail: mmendez@UCLA.edu
Supported by the U.S. National Institute on Aging (grant R01AG050967).
The author reports no financial relationships with commercial interests.
 

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
Znów kompletna cisza. W temacie led także ;(

W zawiązku z tym wracam do młodości bezpowrotnie utraconej.
troszkę także powrót do początku watka .

Kretoński Ruch Oporu​




Wnętrze piekarni w RIU

Kretoński Ruch Oporu La Resistance - Organizacja składająca się z kretonów, która miała ma celu przeciwstawiać się dyktaturze Kuratora. Jej członkowie dzielnie stawiali opór.
KRO swą siedzibę miał na Kuranie w piekarni "La Resistance Boulangerie", co tłumaczy się jako "Piekarnia Oporu". Samo Resistance to parodia prawdziwego Ruchu Oporu (właśnie "La Resistance", czyli "opór"), który rzeczywiście działał we Francji w czasie II wojny światowej i który w groteskowy sposób przedstawili Jeremy Lloyd i David Croft w serialu 'Allo 'Allo!.

latest


 

zjarany emeryt

Emeryt
Weteran
Rejestracja
Lis 19, 2010
Postów
2,658
Buchów
8,753
Odznaki
8
”Boraks i Bor – na pewno nie teoria spiskowa – fakty naukowe
O borze i boraksie można poczytać (tak ogólnie) w serwisach typu wolne media czy wolna polska (interesujące odnośniki do szperania dalej np. w badaniach czy bardziej konkretnych źródłach). Promują one tekst o borze(i boraksie) jako minerale o wręcz magicznych właściwościach kompletnie na wszystko. Kiedyś jak je czytałem myślałem sobie “WOW – interesujące…” – obecnie po sprawdzeniu wszystkich dostępnych źródeł naukowych(bezpłatnych) Bor jest dla mnie minerałem bardzo interesującym …ale już bez efektu WOW. Oto co ciekawego można o nim się dowiedzieć:W jednym z badań na szczurach podawano jednej grupie 100mg boraksu, innej grupie 6.5mg boru. Obydwie grupy(jednak było to bardziej wyraźniejsze w grupie boraksowej) wykazały obniżenie poziomów leptyny, insuliny, poziomu glukozy we krwi oraz zwiększony poziom hormonu tarczycy T3 oraz poziomy karnityny we krwi (bardzo przydatna funkcja u osób z cukrzycą, insulinopornością, niedoczynnością tarczycy, u tych którzy chcą zgubić zbędną tkankę tłuszczową oraz u padaczkowców którzy biorą kwas walproinowy gdyż obniża on poziomy karnityny w komórkach powodując międzyinnymi przewlekłe zmęczenie) już po 28dniach suplementacji. Po 4 tygodniach wykazano również obniżony BMI(czyli poprostu spadek wagi ciałą) ciała. Boraks wykazuje mocniejsze działanie niż kwas borowy.
1)Jedno z badań wykazuje lepsze uwalnianie się srebra koloidalnego(z plastrów typu silver cell) w połączeniu z boraksem oraz potwierdza aktywność antybakteryjna przeciwko gronkowcowi złocistemu i pałeczce ropy błękitnej.
2)Borax wykazuje zmniejszenie toksyczności przed aflatoksyną B1. (jest to toksyna występująca w orzeszkach ziemnych, zbożach i innych produktach)
3)Wykazuje działanie ochronne przed toksycznością aluminium w wątrobie
4) oraz chroni przed uszkodzeniami DNA przez praktycznie wszystkie metale ciężkie
5)W innym badaniu Borax obniża poziomy malondialdnaehyde(MDA)(substancja znajdowana w stawach osób z zapaleniem stawów i kości), zapobiega uszkodzeniom DNA, obniża poziom carbonyl content(PCO) w krwi i poziomy glutationu w wątrobie, dysmutazy ponadtlenkowej Cu-Zn-SOD i katalazy w nerkach natomiast zwiększa poziomy GSH w krwi oraz poziomy witaminy C w plaźmie komórkowej. W badaniu stwierdzono, że obniża poziomy peroksydacji lipidów, zwiększa poziomy obrony antyoksydacyjnej i status witamin.
6)wykazuje działanie protekcyjne w przypadku dużych dawek wanadu.
7)W jednym z badań, fluoreksodu(czyli poprostu Fluor) spowodował obniżenie się poziomów wapnia i cynku we krwi. Dodanie boraxu spowodowało wzrost zarówno wapnia jak i cynku w organizmie.
8)9)Wykazuje działanie ochronne wobec substancji rakotwórczej, dodawanej do suplementów i leków(zwłaszcza tabletkowych) – dwutlenku tytanu.
10)W badaniu podawano myszom, których dopadła infekcja, bor w postaci Boraxu. Zwiększył on poziom komórek CD4,CD19 ale nie CD8(w wielu jak nie we wszystkich infekcjach wirusowych w tym HIV czy EBV poziom komórek CD4 spada przez co totalnie pada odporność). Zwiększył on poziomy cytokin zapalnych TNF alfa, IL-6, IL-1B oraz tlenku azotu(zwiększając iNOS) wydzielanych przez komórki układu odpornościowego-makrofagi. Efekt ten zależny był od dawki. Wywnioskowano, że bor ma działanie regulacyjne układu odpornościowego.
11)W badaniu sprawdzono podatność bakterii e.coli oraz pałeczki ropy błękitnej na antybiotyk Kanamycine. Okazało się ze wody bogate w bor(testowano 7 różnych pochodnych boru) powodują, że w/w bakterie są o 200x bardziej podatne na antybiotyk Kanamycine.
12)Zakłada się, że u zwierząt toksyczna(śmiertelna) dawka boru to 50gram/100kg masy ciała co jest równoznaczne z konsumpcją 200gram boraksu.
13)Borax wykazuje właściwości hamujące wzrost komórek raka wątroby. Dzieje się to poprzez podniesienie aktywności p53 (jest to czynnik transkrypcyjny tłumiący nowotwory – tematyka tego białka jest poruszana w setkach prac odnoszących się do metod przedłużania życia człowieka), białka Bax oraz obniżenie aktywności Bcl-2 (odpowiedzialna za przetrwanie komórki, w tym wypadku ma powoduje to śmierć komórki nowotworowej). W wielu pracach napotkałem substancje naturalne, które powodują śmierć komórkową jednak nie jest to śmierć komórek zdrowych a jedynie śmierć komórek nowotworowych(coś w tylu selektywnej apoptozy) – z biegiem czasu będę wspominał o takich funkcjach w opisywanych roślinach i produktach diety.
14) 15)Z kolei w tym badaniu wykazano, że Bor zwiększa poziomy SOD1 i SOD2 (Miedziowo-cynkowa oksydaza nadtlenkowa oraz manganowa oksydaza nadtlenkowa), które odpowiedzialne są za obronę komórek i ich mitochondriów przed wolnymi rodnikami. Wykazano również, że wzrost boru w diecie obniża poziomy manganu.
16)Borax wykazuje właściwości ochronne względem rdzenia kręgowego u szczurów w czasie niedokrwienia i reperfuzji. Wykazuje działanie zmniejszające obrzęki, stany zapalne i ochrania przed uszkodzeniem tkanek rdzenia kręgowego.
17)Borax wykazuje działanie przeciwtrądzikowe
18)W latach 1912-1948 w szpitalu Kolonien Filadelfia Epilepsy, Dianalund, Dania prawie 5% osób, którym podawano borax wykazano większą niż 50% poprawę w ilości napadów padaczkowych. 19)Oczywiście tak jak np.istnieją skutki uboczne kosmicznych dawek wchłanianego manganu u górników go wydobywającego lub ludzi go przetwarzającego w hutach tak też istnieje ryzyko toksyczności borem. Opisano w literaturze 3 takie przypadki, tj.osób które doświadczyło łysienia(odwracalnego po zaprzestaniu pracy w środowisku mocno bogatym w bor).
20)Absorbcja boru i boraksu przez skórę jest słabiutka(znacznie słabsza niż podanie doustne)
21)Poważne skutki uboczne/toksyczność wykazano po wstrzyknięciu pustynnym myszoskoczkom 250mg/kg przez 16dni (w sumie 4gramy na kg). Jak zwykle zapodano dawkę z innej galaktyki dezinformując o toksycznym działaniu Boru/Boraxu(tylko na takie badania toksyczności można natrafić).
22)Jedno ze źródeł amerykańskich podaje, że dopuszczalna max.dawka bez skutków ubocznych w wodzie to 0.3mg boru /kg masy ciała czyli przy 75kg = 22.5mg boru a
to przy szybkiej kalkulacji wychodzi niecałe 100mg boraksu(sam biore od 50-100mg).
23)Kwas borowy może hamować proteazę serynową PSA – jest to marker diagnostyczny raka prostaty czy też po prostu przerośniętej prostaty – PSA bardzo fajnie i szybko mogą zbić takie rzeczy jak palma sabałowa oraz świeżo-wyciśnięty sok z jednego z najbardziej wartościowego i mojego ulubionego owocu – granatu.
24)25) 26)Kolejne źródło medyczne wskazuje na dawki wywołujące skutki uboczne – 500mg boraksu (to sporo moim zdaniem) stosowanego przez 50dni dzień w dzień. Skutki uboczne jakich można wtedy doświadczyć to mgła umysłowa(“ciężka/pełna głowa”), brak apetytu, złe samopoczucie, rewolucje
żołądkowe.
27)Odradza się stosowania u kobiet w ciąży, karmiących i małych dzieci. Jako że bor/boraks akumuluje się w organizmie zalecane jest jego okresowe przyjmowanie typu 1miesiąc on 1miesiąc off.Na sam koniec badanie w którym pokazano efekty po 7dniach podawania boraxu (śmieszna dawka bo 10mg) codziennie ze sniadaniem u mezczyzn(badanie). Zwiększa wolny testosteron z czym ma problem wiele osób z autoagresja(ma za niski poziom tego hormonu jak i DHEA), zmniejsza estradiol(bardzo pomocne u osob ktore lysieja gdyz testosteron przemienia sie do DHT i estradiolu = obydwie substancje powoduja lysienie!), zwieksza hormon luteinizujacy(przydatny u kobiet majacych problem z zajsciej w ciąże), zwieksza poziomy witaminy d3, MOCNO obniza stany zapalne(cytokina IL-6 ktora jest podwyższona w przypadku osob ktore maja candide, borelioze, bartonelle, maja problem ze snem,popadly w depresje), zbija CRP, MOCNO obniza cytokine zapalna podwyzszona w wiekszosci chorob autoimmunologicznych. 28)”Gość jednak przytacza same plusy
http://zdrowiebeztajemnic.pl/boraks-bor-niedoceniany-mineral-o-sporych-mozliwosciach/
 

sssc

Well-known member
Rejestracja
Paź 15, 2022
Postów
47
Buchów
28
Wpisz "Spisek w sprawie boraksu"
Z własnej autopsji wiem że pomaga .Hubert Czerniak mówi że na stawy nie ma nic lepszego .
Do tego magnez w proszku siarka organiczna (MSM) i kwas askorbinowy .
 

sssc

Well-known member
Rejestracja
Paź 15, 2022
Postów
47
Buchów
28
Jak najbardziej tak. Jest tego długa lista najlepiej jak kogoś interesuje to odesłać na forum Cheops i tam niech szuka .
Napisałem mix tego do wypicia .Jest jeszcze DMSO warto poczytać jak kogoś coś boli .
 

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
Dmso.


Lekuchno toksyczne:)


While generally used at relatively low concentrations, DMSO still has medically useful properties such as inducing anti-inflammation, nerve blockage (analgesia), diuretics, vasodilation and muscle relaxation.

Ciekawe na swój sposób. Nie ma czegoś mniej toksycznego.

Apokalipsa zombie.
( Analogia, o tyle ciekawe, że nie przechodzi przez barierę krew mózg)


Tetrodotoksyna jest bardzo silną neurotoksyną powodującą przerwanie przekaźnictwa elektrycznego w nerwach poprzez przyłączanie się do białek kanałów sodowych w błonach komórek nerwowych. Tetrodotoksyna jest bardzo stabilnym związkiem chemicznym. Nie rozkłada się podczas gotowania. Nie przechodzi też przez barierę krew-mózg, co sprawia, że ofiara zostaje sparaliżowana, ale jest całkowicie przytomna.

Jeżeli przyjęta dawka trucizny jest śmiertelna, pojawia się postępujący paraliż mięśni. Innymi objawami są zawroty głowy, wyczerpanie, ból głowy, nudności i problemy z oddychaniem. 50–80% ofiar umiera w ciągu 4–24 godzin. Zatruty jest przez większość czasu przytomny, ale nie może się ruszać ani mówić, wkrótce zaś także oddychać. Umiera uduszony. Jeśli ofierze uda się przetrwać 24 godziny, zwykle całkowicie odzyskuje zdrowie.

Nie ma żadnej znanej odtrutki, leczenie polega na płukaniu żołądka, podaniu węgla aktywnego w celu związania toksyny i podjęcia standardowych czynności podtrzymujących życie, aby umożliwić pacjentowi przeżycie do chwili, gdy działanie trucizny minie. Japońscy toksykolodzy w kilku ośrodkach badawczych pracują obecnie nad wynalezieniem antidotum na tetrodotoksynę.
 
Ostatnia edycja:

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
Wiesz. Twoje życie twoja decyzja. Pytanie czy cena za jest akceptowalna dla ciebie.


Hmmm

Gastrointestinal and dermatological adverse reactions were the most commonly reported in the included studies. Cardiac adverse reactions only occurred when DMSO was administered intravenously, whereas dermatological reactions mostly occurred when DMSO was administered on the skin. Serious neurological and cardiac reactions were rare and only described in few studies. There seems to be a dose-response relationship between DMSO and adverse reactions with no or mild reactions in low doses.

Ale także

The authors have conducted a systematic review assessing reports of adverse reactions attributed to DMSO. The topic is interesting, and the authors have conducted their searches in a reasonable way. However, there are several flaws in this manuscript that need to be addressed:

Introduction

The term “possible adverse reactions” is incorrect. Suspected adverse reactions is more reasonable
Methods

If Russian articles were screened by only one author, how were discrepancies resolved in these cases? Specify which authors extracted the data, and whether this was done independently.
Results

The term “possibly due” is incorrect. There are 4 levels in describing associations between medicines and suspected adverse reactions. The authors should revise their terminology.
You state “in some studies patients discontinued treatments due to halitosis”; however, you have provided references for 5 studies – the report can be more precise.
Discussion

How does “including Russian studies” strengthen the review? What about several other languages that have been omitted?
You state that there seems to be a dose-response relationship, and have drawn similar conclusions. However, at no point in the results do you report data to support this claim. You state that studies reported associations between dose and the occurrence of adverse reactions, but fail to report the doses in question.
Please enumerate the limitations of your review.
I confirm that I have read this submission and believe that I have an appropriate level of expertise to confirm that it is of an acceptable scientific standard, however I have significant reservations, as outlined above.

bennedikte Madsen
bennedikte Madsen, Herlev Hospital, Denmark;
Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.
Dear Igho J. Onakpoya,

Thank your for reviewing our manuscript “Adverse reactions of dimethyl sulfoxide in humans: a systematic review”. Your comments were very helpful and we appreciate the effort you put in to reviewing our manuscript. We have addressed the individual questions in the section below. We hope your find our replies satisfactory. Questions are written in italic and answers in plain.

Ps: ostatnio jak miałem poczytać, skończyło się na kilku ryzach :) tu chyba sobie daruję.

Jest raczej oficjalnie używany. A działanie przeciwbólowe jest pewne. Mimo wszystko mi by nie leżał.

Pozdr
 
Ostatnia edycja:

sssc

Well-known member
Rejestracja
Paź 15, 2022
Postów
47
Buchów
28
Wystarczy przejrzeć you tube w tym temacie .Poczytać ile osób na forum Cheopsa to stosowało .Tak samo jak boraks obejrzyj opakowanie .Powinienem być wypalony od środka a nie jestem. Jak dla mnie ma działanie lecznicze jedno i drugie .A to co ty przedstawiasz to może być straszeniem ludzi by nie stosowali . Zresztą nie mi to oceniać każdy robi swoje .Tak samo jak eliksir mocy covid 19 taki dobry a jednak dużo ludzi umarło i jeszcze więcej po nim umrze . Tak samo wciskanie ludziom ciemnoty konopie medyczne ostatnio dobre a rekreacyjne nadal nie dobre ...
pozdrawiam .
 

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
:) twoje życie twój wybór. Ja mam zupełnie inny.
To, że mi nie leży to czy co innego to mój wybór.

Konopie np. mi nie leżą rekreacyjnie mimo tego, że je lubię jako ja wiem.. sentyment. Leczniczo także by mi nie leżały. I co ? Moja sprawa.

Nie staram się zmienić twojego zdania ani cię straszyć. Napisałeś poczytajcie. To jednym okiem spojrzałem. Dosyć powszechnie stosowany. Między innymi w in vitro. Gdzie raczej chyba teraz się będzie tego unikać. Podejrzany o.

Nie jestem zainteresowany tematem dmso, nie zamierzam kruszyć kopii. Stosuj co chcesz i jak chcesz twoje życie i decyzja.

Zapewne przekopales literaturę jeśli cię temat interesuje. Mi szkoda czasu. pewnie można by było z pół roku siedzieć i szukać. Od tuby do ncbi oto etc. Opinie fora.. od przypisania właściwości cudownego panaceum do racjonalnego podejścia do. Wolę kopać w innej tematyce nie związanej z.

Pozdr

Ps: tetrodotoksyna jest złośliwą analogia do czegoś innego:) wszystko mi się kojarzy.
 
Ostatnia edycja:

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608

zabaxt
56 min. temu
zgłoś
no co działała w obronie własnej.Uniewinnić

swinka
1 godz. temu
zgłoś
powinna otrzymac medal..oby wszystkie zwierzeta zaczely sie bronic..

byćmoże
1 godz. temu
zgłoś
W wiadomościach świńskich pewnie był tytuł- Cud w obozie zagłady !

Ian
1 godz. temu
zgłośj
Karma… Sweet, sweet karma:)


Ciekawe na swój sposób. Można powiedzieć, że wszyscy stanęli po stronie świni.


:)








Nuda.



Kto by się spodziewał z Odessy

 
Ostatnia edycja:

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608

Mają 200 subskrybentów



Hmm.





Cholera. Za kilka lat toster będzie inteligentniejszy niż ja. ( Mam już pewne obawy związane z lodówką)


Ciągle mamy do czynienia z umiejętnościami o charakterze statystycznym, a nie z głębokim, charakterystycznym dla ludzi wglądem w rzeczywistość. Jednak kwestia niedoskonałości algorytmu i rozważania o tym, czy Sztuczna Inteligencja zbliża się do inteligencji ludzkiej nie są tu jednak chyba najważniejsze. Wysoka jakość tekstów, jaką proponuje nam GPT-3 prowokuje mimo wszystko pytania o możliwe nadużycia,
Które ta technologia zdecydowanie ułatwia.


Ale jednocześnie może budzić lęki wielu grup zawodowych, takich jak chociażby dziennikarze czy naukowcy. Nie trzeba też specjalnych kwalifikacji, by stwierdzić, że w erze fałszywych wiadomości urządzenia tego typu mają realny potencjał, by stać się bronią masowego rażenia: zalewać przeciwników politycznych dezinformacjami, przyczyniając się do jeszcze silniejszej polaryzacji świata polityki.

________________&&&&&&&&&&________________

Wygląda na to że czasy płatnych trolli się kończą, toster jest inteligentniejszy, skuteczniejszy i tańszy...

______________________________&&________________
Forum.haszysz.com

(www.littlesz.com) and your comments.

All posts related to the Black Panthers are welcome comments (comments) posted in this thread.

The original Post may not be edited or shared by all users in the forum. You need to be logged in to post comments in the forum

Post content outside the forum

Do not post from inside your comment or message boards.

Posts which are copyrighted or used for commercial speech are not allowed unless specifically noted in the permission of the user (for example, the content of this post may link to my posts on other sites, which could violate other copyright or trade agreements)

In order to remain current with the changes, you must register the post and be given the time and place of post.

How to register a post about the Black Panthers? You have 2 ways to register a post: You can register a posting on the Black Panthers forum or as a general public post. You can also register by e-mailing the moderator of that forum or by calling the White House Office of Public Affairs at (202) 226-6086. Here's how to participate in submitting postings regarding a particular subject:


1. Once you reach this point, just leave your post at home.

2. To add or remove your post from the list (a moderator is responsible for your post), contact White House and Congress directly

share
The text generation API is backed by a large-scale unsupervised language model that can generate paragraphs of text. This transformer-based language model, based on the GPT-2 model by OpenAI, intakes a sentence or partial sentence and predicts subsequent text from that input.
 
Ostatnia edycja:

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
Chyba... Chciałem co innego napisać. Wena..

Może jakaś muzyka motywacyjna ? ( Jakiej najbardziej nie lubisz?)
 

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
Znam:)


Nie mój klimat. ( Chyba? )


Ps:


Coś starego


Czarne szeregi od czarnowidza.


 
Ostatnia edycja:

ekoludek

997
Weteran
Rejestracja
Paź 2, 2009
Postów
3,531
Buchów
11,097
Odznaki
12
Najlepsze jest to że nie znam ang. no może już trochę lepiej bo musiałem tłumaczyć to co mnie iteresowalo, i w sumie nawet wie co oni tam "spiewaja" a ta postać Chrystusa przypomina bardziej Schredera z żółwi ninja
 

sub23

nudziarus offtopicus
Rejestracja
Paź 6, 2018
Postów
4,763
Buchów
4,608
Juniwersum żelazne niebo. ? To trochę jak kreskówka Monty pytona. Chyba?
 

Góra Dół