nasiona marihuany

Nawoz z bananów do nawożenia uprawy konopi

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kameleonsen

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Cześć,
Kupiłem, wyczyściłem, zjadłem 10 bananów. Skórkę pociąłem, wysuszyłem, skruszylem.
Chciałbym to wymieszać z ziemią.
Ile na ile? Łyżka na 5l? Miesza się to wgle z ziemią?
 

R4VEN

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W poddziale „Organiczne” masz taki przepis:


Tylko usuwasz z niego melon i masz świetny nawóz.
Widziałam w FR jak ludzie luzem wrzucali skórki i same się rozkładały na powierzchni gleby, ale niech się wypowie na ten temat ktoś kto stosował takie praktyki.
 

Manso

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Posiłkowałem się internetem

„Mix 2-4 teaspoons of this powder in a liter of water and use it on the foliage and growing medium once in 3-5 weeks”

„The average NPK value for dried banana skin is going to be around 0.6-0.4-11.5.”

Poszukaj nawozu potasowego z podobnym npk i zobacz jakie ma dawkowanie
 

sub23

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Abstract​

Background​

Banana contains important nutrients, which could be recycled into useful materials to be reused in different purposes. Extraction of mixed nano bio stimulant fertilizer from banana peels is the main purpose of this investigation.

Results​

Nano-fertilizer extract was subjected to physical and chemical analyses for characterization. The fertilizer constituent size ranged from 19 to 55 nm, and the histogram illustrates that the major nanoparticles were 40 nm with an average percentage of 36% while 55-nm particles were the minor size with an average percentage of 6%. The synthesized nanofertilizers contained chelated potassium, chelated iron, tryptophan, urea, amino acids, protein, and citric acid.

Conclusions​

Nano-fertilizer extracted from banana peels was applied in agriculture of two crops, tomato and fenugreek. The data revealed that germination percentage increased with increasing dose of banana peel extract for both crops. For tomato crop, the germination percentage was increased from 14% (control without nano) to 97% after 7 days of plantation. Also, the same trend was noticed for fenugreek crop, the germination percentage was enhanced from 25% (control without nano) to 93.14%.



Extraction preparation of nanofertilizer from banana peels​

0.5 kg of the Egyptian banana peels was washed well with tap water to remove the dust and any impurities adhered to the outer surface. The cleaned peels were shredded to small pieces then blended with tap water using a high-speed mechanical blender. The obtained viscous slurry was mixed with the determined quantity of potassium hydroxide and stirred for 1 min to get homogenous slurry. The alkaline blended peel slurry was subjected to boiling with stirring for 30 min. After boiling, the slurry was kept for cooling at room temperature to be ready for further processing. The cold slurry was subjected to vacuum filtration to get clear brown filtrate and thick dark brown sludge. Hence, the clear filtrate was heated to about 70 °C, with continuous stirring at 300 rpm. After that, urea and citric acid (5% solution) were added dropwise till pH 5. The obtained sludge was dried at 105 °C, then grinded to fine powder. The product was subjected to physical and chemical analyses for characterization as shown in Fig. 1.


0,5 kg egipskich łupin banana zostało dokładnie umytych wodą z kranu, aby usunąć kurz i wszelkie zanieczyszczenia przylegające do zewnętrznej powierzchni. Wyczyszczone łupiny zostały pokrojone na małe kawałki, a następnie zmiksowane z wodą z kranu za pomocą mechanicznego blendera o dużej prędkości. Uzyskana lepka masa została wymieszana z określoną ilością wodorotlenku potasu i mieszana przez 1 minutę, aby uzyskać jednolitą masę. Alkaliczna mieszanka łupin została poddana gotowaniu z mieszaniem przez 30 minut. Po ugotowaniu masa została pozostawiona do ostudzenia do temperatury pokojowej, aby była gotowa do dalszej obróbki. Zimną masę poddano filtracji próżniowej, aby otrzymać klarowny brązowy filtrat i gęsty ciemnobrązowy osad. Oczyszczony filtrat został podgrzany do około 70°C, przy ciągłym mieszaniu z prędkością 300 obr./min. Następnie stopniowo dodawano mocznik i kwas cytrynowy (roztwór 5%) do osiągnięcia pH 5. Otrzymany osad został wysuszony przy 105°C, a następnie zmielony na drobny proszek. Produkt poddano analizom fizycznym i chemicznym w celu charakteryzacji, jak pokazano na rysunku 1.
===============================================================================================

Zapewne zamiast wodorotlenku potasu można dodać popiołu z drewna.

Application of extracted nanofertilizer in agriculture​

Seeds of two vegetative crops (tomato and fenugreek), 33 seeds of each crop, were used, and the seeds were cultivated in Egyptian clay loam texture soil taken from the middle Nile delta soil in a village near Tanta city with physical properties and composition of sand 25%, silt 37%, clay 38%, bulk density 1.1 g cm−3, and saturated hydraulic conductivity 0.69 cm h−1. The seeds were irrigated using water of total salinity of 450 ppm amount of 40% of soil weight with the addition of different doses (4, 8, 12, and 16 ml/l) of nanofertilizer extracted from banana peels. After 7 days, data concerning with germination percentages were recorded and variances were analyzed according to the Duncan method (Duncan 1959).



Application of extracted nanofertilizer in agriculture​

Effect of banana peel extract on germination percentage​

On applying banana peel extract as fertilizer in tomato and fenugreek irrigation, it was noticed that the germination percentage increased compared with the control sample as seen in Table 3. These results may be referred to the high content of amino acids (i.e., l-tryptophan), nutrient elements such as potassium, and growth promoters as mentioned previously in Lee et al. (2010) and Emaga et al. (2007) and that was collected in (Table 4, Aboul-Enein et al. 2016). The authors investigated the effects of tryptophan on the growth of plants (wheat, periwinkle) and showed that tryptophan may improve many physiological processes. For example, it regulated the plant growth, metabolism of plants under water stress, and increasing physiological availability of water and nutrients, besides the effect of tryptophan on increasing levels of endogenous hormones. Consequently, it can stimulate cell division and/or cell enlargement and subsequently growth (El-Bassiouny 2005; Talaat et al. 2005; Sadak and Orabi 2015). The effects of banana peel extract application on quinoa were studied. It was clear that banana peel extract at 500 mg/l surpassed tryptophan treatments and adding 50 or 75 mg/l resulted in increasing endogenous indole-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) and phenol and total free amino acids (Bakry et al. 2016). Regarding banana peel composition which contains K+, Ca ++, Na+, Fe+++, P, and Mg++, addition of potassium hydroxide breaks lignin and cellulose. While urea and citric acid utilization liberated minerals, amino acids, tryptophan, and total protein, the presence of these liberated materials has great effects on the plant germination (Aboul-Enein et al. 2016); according to these results, the following mechanism could be proposed as in the following equations (Fig. 6).

As the metals combined with organic compound, the organic complex was formed (chelates) that tightly trapped the metallic elements, preventing their release to the soil. Trapped metals in chelates lost their cationic characteristics, making them less prone to precipitation that is useful in agriculture. When natural products decomposes, they can generate naturally chelating agents such as organic acids, amino acids, lignin-sulfonates, lignin poly carboxylates, sugar acids and derivatives, phenols, poly flavonoids, siderophores, and phytosiderophores. Other chelating agents could be developed synthetically, both types of chelating/complexion causing increment of micronutrient solubility. One of the most important characteristics of chelating agents used is the relative stability of various metal chelates, especially if one is considering synthetically developed chelates. In other words, it is the degree of affinity of a given agent for a metal. From the stability constant data, the ability of one metal to compete with another can be estimated. Stability of micronutrient chelate bonded generally determines “plant availability” of the applied micronutrient. An effective chelate relationship is one in which the rate of substitution of the chelated micronutrients for cations already in the soil is low, thus maintaining the applied micronutrient in the chelated form for length of time sufficient to be absorbed by the plant roots. The chelated forms of micronutrients have advantages over traditional forms of inorganic fertilizers such as smaller quantities required, are much more easily absorbed, more easily translocate within the plant, easily assimilated within the plant system, chances of “scorching” of crops, while using chelates is less because they are organic substances, compatible with a wide variety of pesticides and liquid fertilizers, and are not readily leached from the soil as they adsorb on to the surface of soil particles. It has been found that in the alkaline soils, where Fe solubility and availability to plants are extremely low, adding soluble Fe salts is not very effective, unless the soluble Fe is in a form that does not react with the soil system and yet can be readily assimilated by plants. There are two alternatives available to deal with iron deficiency. These are soil application of iron chelates and foliar sprays containing chelated iron. If the soil pH is alkaline, chelates must be preferred to inorganic salts. In citrus cultivation, application of about 10–20 g Fe/tree in chelate form has proved satisfactory. The application of Fe-EDDHA and Fe-sugar acid chelates at 7 mg Fe/l resulted in re-greening of leaves in iron-deficient plants. Chelating agents, from which iron has been released and under conditions favorable to chelation of Mn, compete with plant roots for Mn. Chelating agents have the ability to keep iron sufficiently in solution to provide enough iron at the root surface to effect competition with manganese. Organic zinc fertilizer sources are the che1ates of EDTA, NTA, HEDTA, and iron citrate. Other organic sources include Zn-lignin sulfonate, Zn-poly flavonoid, and by-products of the wood pulp industry. Mn is mainly transported as Mn and not as an organic complex. Thus, Mn chelates are effective only when used as liquid fertilizer formulation and hydroponics. Application of Cu chelates with different amino acids increased chlorophyll content, grain yield, amino acid content, and the uptake. True amino acid chelates are emerging as state-of-the-art technology for delivering selected micronutrients with maximum bioavailability, tolerability, and safety. In this study, urea is considered as the main source of nitrogen and a carrier for the obtained nanoparticles, while citric acid is the main chelating agent for potassium, iron, magnesium, zinc, manganese, calcium, and amino acids. This is explained as citric acid is one of the most important organic acids in the respiratory pathways into plant cell. Also, it is essential for different biochemical and physiological processes. Potassium citrate increases leaf area, improves leaf mineral content, enhances yield, and improves fruit quality (Ibrahim et al. 2015). Calcium with urea may improve crop production and increases ammonium, potassium, and phosphorus absorption. It also stimulates photosynthesis and increases the size of sellable plant parts (Feagley and Fenn 1998). It is reported that the most optimum form for increasing iron content in plant system is the citrate form which is a significant nutrition for plants and iron deficiency causes severe problem for the soil (Mordoğan et al. 2013). Taha et al. (2014) also concluded the application of banana peel extract as a potential natural source of antioxidant and antimicrobial sources. To determine the effects of foliar application of amino acid and calcium chelate on Golden Delicious and Granny Smith apple trees, a randomized complete block design with four repetitions was conducted. The combination of amino acid and calcium chelate increased weight of both cultivars (Aboul-Enein et al. 2016). Amino acid chelate fertilizers were conducted to test its effect on the growing of Pennisetum American and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) forage crops as well as their effects on some soil properties. The results indicated that organic matter and CEC of soil tended to increase slightly with the use of synthesized fertilizers as compared with unfertilized check; also, they improved the soil content of macro- and microelements. The efficiency of organic synthesized fertilizers was improved when they are applied in combination with 1/2 unit or one unit of NPK recommended rates (Arabloo et al. 2017). The effect of both diphenylamin and tryptophan significantly increased plant growth (in terms of plant height, number of leaves/plant, stem diameter, root length, and leaf area, as well as fresh and dry weights of the different plant parts) and the contents of carotenoids, total soluble sugars, and total free amino acids in the leaves as reported (Mostafa et al. 2014). Short-time application of protein hydrolysates increased the root dry weight of maize plants compared to the untreated plants (Abou Dahab and Abd El-Aziz 2006, Nardi et al. 2016). Based on the abovementioned discussion, potassium hydroxide was used for dissolving the cellulosic material, leading to liberation of the fertilizing agent to the solution; then, carrier and chelating agent were added to convert these agents to the nanochelating biostimulant fertilizers. Due to the presence of minerals (K+, Mg++, Fe++, Mn++, Na+, Zn++, and Cu++), tryptophan, amino acids, and protein, a complicated structure with high fertilizing value from the banana peels was obtained.

Conclusions​

Nano bio stimulant fertilizer can be extracted from banana peels under alkaline conditions. In this investigation, it was found that the extract of banana peel contains about 80 g/L of elemental potassium chelated with citric acid. Also, other minerals such as iron, magnesium, copper, sodium, calcium, and manganese chelated with citric acid in a nanostructure form. Extract contains constituents of spherical nanostructure, having major particle size (40 nm). The obtained nano bio stimulant shows great germination efficiency in the first planting week for both tomato and fenugreek, so it is recommended as a biological promoter for seed germination and seedling growth performance. Utilizing nanotechnology to transfer the banana peel extract from normal form to nanoform added a positive value for this extraction and reinforced its positive impacts as growth promoter. Due to the alkalinity of the Egyptian soil, the obtained nano bio stimulant pH was adjusted to 5 using citric acid. Based on the lab scale results obtained in this study, future investigations on the pilot and industrial scale have to be done with cooperation with agriculture engineering and professors taking into consideration the soil types, seeds varieties, irrigation water, and nanofertilizer economics.



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Zamiast wodorotlenku potasu =>


W gospodarstwach wiejskich do ogrzewania domów nadal stosuje się drzewo. Pozostały po spaleniu drewna popiół można wykorzystać do nawożenia roślin.


Popiół drzewny uważany jest za organiczny nawóz mineralny. Najbardziej wartościowy pod względem nawozowym jest popiół ze spalania drzew liściastych, np. dębu, brzozy. Zawartość składników mineralnych w popiele zależy od gatunku drzew. Zawiera on średnio 35% wapnia (Ca), 10% potasu (K), 4% fosforu (P), 3% magnezu (Mg) oraz mikroelementy. Nawóz w glebie ulega szybkiej mineralizacji, składniki są łatwo dostępne dla roślin.


Popiół ma działanie odkwaszające glebę - jego odczyn pH wynosi od 10 do 12. Jest wykorzystany do zwalczania mchu na trawnikach, dodawany do kompostów. Ze względu na dużą zawartość potasu powinien być wykorzystany w nawożeniu roślin potasolubnych: kapusty, kalafiorów, ogórków. Może być stosowany w uprawie krzewów i drzew owocowych, a także wykorzystany w uprawie roślin na zielony nawóz i poplonów. Nie może być stosowany w uprawie roślin kwasolubnych, np. borówki amerykańskiej. Popiół jako nawóz możemy stosować wiosną lub jesienią, a dawka powinna wynosić ok 1 kg na 100 m2.


Popiół bywa wykorzystywany również do zwalczania ślimaków przez działkowiczów. W rolnictwie zrównoważonym dąży się do wykorzystania składników pokarmowych z różnych źródeł, nie tylko z przemysłu nawozowego.


to jest dostępne bez problemu :


...

Propozycja ( z matrycy chaosu ) => Nawóz z wykorzystaniem skórek Bannanów : Bogaty w wapń i mikroelementy : wzbogacony lub nie o N.

Przepis kuchenny =>

2-3 pokrojone skórki z banana - blender z lidla za 90 PLN
Woda ~200~400 ml - szczypta popiołu z drewna liściastego : lub pół.. ( bardzo dużo wapnia )
Szczypta kwasku cytrynowego: ( lub sok z niewielkiej cytryny lub limonki ?)
Jeśli posiadamy mocznik => także szczypta.
Papierek lakmusowy.

1: blendujemy z woda z odrobina popiolu:
2: gotujemy to przez jakiś czas na wolnym ogniu.
3: pozostawiamy do czasu aż opadnie osad : lub sączymy to przez szmatkę. ( albo nie saczymy wcale - pewnie wyjdzie glut )
4: dodajemy kwasku cytrynowego do smaku : i szczypte mocznika o ile jest dostepny : dokladnie mieszamy ... gałezia wiciokrzewu kręcąc w lewą stronę.

Hmm.... Roztwór kwasku cytrynowego ( sok z wycisnietej cytryny ?) -> kroplami : i sprawdzic pH ->( Szczypta mocznika => N : - przy formule na weg ?)

Odrobina popiołu => masa składników mineralnych -> i mikroelementów dodatkowo.
Kwasek cytrynowy - właściwości chelatujące -> zawieszona materia organiczna -> składniki mineralne osadzone na - > forma : wolniej uwalniana - > rozkładająć sie -> dodtkowo generuje... itp.

wersja extreme bost + "kropla" melasy do smaku.

Dawkowanie ?

2 do 10 ml/litr do podlania ? Przed użyciem mocno wstrząsnac.

blend zapewne także się nada jako dodatek do ziemi. ( może kompost ? )



Następny : suszone zmielone ekstrakcja foda : foliar spray:

Extraction of banana peel:
Banana peel wastes collected from fruits. The collected banana peel was air-dried, powdered and kept
for extraction. The resulting powder (500 g) was extracted with 2L of distilled water and left to stand for 48
hours at room temperature. The extract was centrifuged at 4500 rpm for 10 min. After centrifugation the
residue was reextracted twice with water as described above.
The crude aqueous extract was concentrated using
rotary evaporator under reduced pressure at 45oC then the concentrated extracts were lyophilized and kept at -
20°C.


The plants were sprayed twice with banana extract (500 & 1000 mg/l) and tryptophan (50 & 75 mg\l)
while control plants were sprayed with distilled water during vegetative growth at 45 and 60 days after sowing.
Data Recorded two weeks after the second spraying at 75 days from sowing plant samples were collected to
determine plant height; fresh and dry weight of shoot and root as well as some biochemical parameters in leaves
photosynthetic pigments, indole acetic acid contents total phenol contents, total free amino acid.
At harvest, the following items were estimated: plant height, fruiting branches number /plant, weight of
seeds/ plant, weight of 1000 seeds and. Air dried seeds were ground into fine powder and kept in desiccators for
analysis. Some chemical parameters are measured in the yielded grains as proteins %, carbohydrates %,
flavonoids, and antioxidant activity.

Nastepny :


SSN: 18158129 E-ISSN: 18151027
Volume 17, Issue 08, August, 2021
651
Banana peel, A. pintoi, and T. gigantea on Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ) Extracts and Coco-water as Growth and Yield (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown Hydroponic Systems

Amino acids as organic nitrogenous compounds are the building blocks in the synthesis of proteins10.
The use of amino acids as a precursor of plant growth promoters is one approach to minimize the effect of water
stress on plant growth and productivity. A common precursor of plant hormone auxin is L-Tryptophan, which
affects the physiological processes of plants after uptake directly or indirectly after transforming into auxins
(IAA)11. L-tryptophan is an amazing amino acid. It may act as an osmolyte, ion transport regulator, modulates
stomatal opening and detoxify harmful effects of heavy metals12, 13. Moreover, the tryptophan pathway plays a
defensive role in plants 14.

Natural antioxidants can be obtained from plant wastes which are transferred to compost rich by the
nutritious organic matter to be returned to the soil for fertilization. Moreover, plant wastes can be extracted by
simple methods to obtain natural antioxidants. The industrial by-products contain peels, equivalent to 40% of
the total weight of fresh banana, generated as a waste product15. These are used as fertilizer or discarded in
many countries as solid waste at large expense. Potential applications for banana peel depend on its chemical
composition. Banana peel is rich source of natural phenolic compounds, antioxidants as vitamins, flavonoids
and K element which is necessary for plants growth 16. Banana peel is rich in nutritional ingredients such as in
dietary fibre, proteins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and potassium17. It contains common
growth promoting substances, which may be involved (as foliar or soil applications) in the mechanism of
induction of growth in various plant species18, 19. Moreover, 20reported that, banana peel extract has high
contents of vitamin A as beta carotene, vitamin C, amino acids especially tryptophan, protein, carbohydrates,
macro and micronutrients, phenolic compounds, fat and fibers



Następny :


Kolejny:


fermentacyjna:

Initial stages until the final product. The initial stages of ‘Potilizer’ are by
obtaining the product concept of the environmentally friendly and the organic-based
product from academic research. From that, the product concept began developing into
a prototype. The main elements in the ‘Potilizer’ are banana peels and distilled water
use for soaking the banana peels. The ripe banana peels consist of strong and impactful
use of its nutrients for fertilizer purposes rather than fresh banana peels. The number of
banana peels used is determined by the amount of volume of the liquid of the product.
The longer the fermentation process occurs, the better are the product
performance for its users. The usual measured time of the fermentation of the banana
peel for the fertilizer purpose is estimated for about a month to extract the nutrients
from the banana pee


Zapewne : gdyby to zblendowac ;) Fermentacja zajdzie szybciej :



ps: Chyba nie jest to odpowiedź na zadane pytanie : A Offtop.

Nie blendują : a moczą : ferment :




Propozycja 2:


Przepis kuchenny :
tu proponują:

Napar z guana nietoperzy


Najlepszym sposobem na wykorzystanie pełnego potencjału guana jest wykonanie napowietrzonego naparu kompostowego. Aby przygotować mocny napar z guano, należy dodać płynne lub sproszkowane guano do ciepłej wody, a następnie napowietrzyć je za pomocą pompy powietrza. Należy jednak pamiętać, że czynność ta będzie wytwarzać dosyć nieprzyjemny zapach.


Przepis #1: Dodaj 1 łyżkę stołową (14 ml) guana nietoperzy do 1 litra ciepłej wody – upewnij się, że nie jest gorąca, ponieważ zabije to mikroby w guanie. Dobrze wymieszaj i włącz pompę napowietrzającą. Pozostaw na noc do zaparzenia. Stosuj raz w tygodniu, aby zapewnić obfity i szybki wzrost roślin.


Przepis #2: Zawiń pół szklanki guano w gazę i zanurz w około 4 litrach ciepłej wody. Odstaw na co najmniej 3 dni przed użyciem go jako nawozu. Napar z guano można stosować jako oprysk dolistnie lub polewać nim rośliny.


Guano może być wykorzystane jako składnik znakomitego podłoża dla kwitnących roślin. W tej roli świetnie sprawdza się następująca mieszanka:
  • 1,5 części ziemi kwiatowej „humus”
  • 1 część odkwaszonego torfu
  • 0,5 części wermikulitu
  • 0,1 część suszonego guana.


Aplikacja patentowa :

Kompletny nawóz organiczny DIY : naturalnie chelatowany : o wydłużonym działaniu :

Potrzebne składniki i sprzet:

sprzet Blender : + garnek
  • 2-3 skórki z banana
  • łyżeczka lub poł guana nietoperzy ( zastępowanie go łyżką granulowanego krowiego obornika jest zapewne możliwe ale nie wskazane - opcjonalnie łyżeczka kurzaka )
  • sok z cytryny/limonki do smaku - lub fragmenty całej cytryny lub limonki bez skórki.
  • ćwierć łyżeczki melasy ( nie jest konieczna )
  • pół litra wody/litr wody
  • składnik opcjonalny - szczypta - popiołu z drewna liściastego : dodana na etapie pierwszym :
  • składnik opcjonalny dodatkowy 2 głowy śledzia/uklei/płoci
Pociete na drobne kawałki skórki z bananów umieszczamy w blenderze i zalewamy 0,5/1 l wody o temperaturze pokojowej ( wskazane jest użycie wody dejonizowanej ). Blendujemy do uzyskania jednolitej masy :

Uzyskanego szejka wlewamy do garnka - zagotowujemy na wolnym ogniu - po zagotowaniu utrzymujemy w temp. wrzenia przez jakiś czas ( pod przykrywką - można lekko uzupełnić wode jak sie za bardzo wygotuje )

sączymy przez szmatkę (o ile się da :lol:)

Letni roztwór umieszczamy w blenderze - uzupełniamy woda do objetości około 0,5 l - dodajemy do niego guana nietoperzy oraz melasę : Blendujemy do uzyskania jednolitej konsystencji : na tym etapie można dodać soku z cytryny lub jej fragmentów do smaku.

Uzyskany nawóz umieszczamy w plastikowej butelce pet.
Przed użyciem wstrząsnac:

Dawkowanie 2-10 ml na l wody do podlania. Przedu użyciem dobrze wstrząsnąc.

:jprd: @Ż**l - Nie bij. Jak by co -> ( nie weryfikowalne konfabulacje : Jak ty postępujesz ze skórkami )




wygotowane:




Popatrzmy na skład :

The average NPK value for dried banana skin is going to be around 0.6-0.4-11.5





Comparative evaluation of organic wastes for
improving maize growth and NPK content
M. Memon1*, K. S. Memon1, S. Mirani1 and G. M. Jamro2
1Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
2Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Canada.
Accepted 4 April, 2012
Plant residues being organic in nature are rich source of macro and micronutrients and can be recycled
to prevent their disposal in the environment, thus sustaining the balance between economic
development and environmental protection. The potential of three agricultural waste composts,
farmyard manure (FYM), banana waste (BW) and pressmud (PM) was tested in a pot experiment
growing maize. The results of the experiment showed highly significant increase in plant height, dry
matter yields and NPK contents with the application of fertilizers, particularly nitrogen (N). Application
of un-decomposed farmyard manure (UD-FYM), un-decomposed banana waste (UD-BW) and un-
decomposed pressmud (UD-PM) generally depressed plant growth and dry matter yields as compared
to control treatment. Maize growth, dry matter yields and NPK contents improved significantly when
untreated compost (UC) or treated compost (TC) were added, but it was still below the fertilizer
treatments. On comparative basis, maize response was better with PM, followed by FYM and BW. This
study clearly shows the beneficial role of composted materials. It is suggested that further studies may
be conducted on various aspects of composting technology, and integrated use of various composts
and mineral fertilizers to determine their role in crop nutrition and sustainable production.



The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

A A Kadir1, N A Rahman1 and N W Azhari1

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 136, Soft Soil Engineering International Conference 2015 (SEIC2015) 27–29 October 2015, Langkawi, Malaysia Citation A A Kadir et al 2016 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 136 012055 DOI 10.1088/1757-899X/136/1/012055

Abstract

Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

fermentacja =>

2.1 Preparation of the starch fruit (banana peel) fermentation liquid
In order to fully utilize the food waste generated at Makanan Ringan Mas, the preparation for fermentation liquid
is by using banana peel to replace fermented food and coconut candy to replace sugary water. Banana peel is an
organic waste that highly rich in nutrient especially K, that could support the microbial growth in fermentation
phase [3]. Using banana peel as fermentation liquid or waste in composting is considered as good as it stimulates
soil microbial growth and activity with the subsequent mineralization of plant nutrients [4].
As replacement of brown sugar in common fermentation liquid, uses of candy which serves as food source for
the microbes. Three (3) liters of water was mixed with 250 gram candy and 250 gram banana peel from
Makanan Ringan Mas. Fermentation was occurred when bubbles starts to form, which normally occurs on the
second day. Ideally, fermentation should take no longer than 7 days. Fermentation liquid was completed when
the banana peel floats and the liquid settles at the bottom. During the fermentation process, the lid of the bottle
should be loosened once a day to remove the gas that trapped in the bottle. The sweet and sour smell produced
indicates that the fermentation liquid is successfully conducted.




4. Conclusions
In this composting study, temperature and pH value during the composting process was found i reach the level
of the proposed range of 40˚C to 47˚C, 5.1 to 8.6 and surpassed 90%. N content ranges from 35325 mg/L to
78775 mg/L, P from 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and K from 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/l. Reactor B showed the
most effective composting process in this composting study. Reactor B which consists of banana peel waste is
easily decomposed and the nutrient produced in compost is much faster and higher than others.
This is probably
due to the oxygen and supplementary nutrient supply that could promote specific growth of microorganism
essential for mineralization of organic substance. High K and N content in banana peel compost reactor is to
assist in obtaining high potential K and N nutrient source in the soil. The concentration of N showed increased
slightly between each reactor by week. On the other hand, the concentration of P and K are more focus on
reactor B that are greater than other reactor. The different concentration indicated that presence of food waste
added will differ amount of NPK due to microbial activity that produce microbes. There is a potential for this
organic food waste from this composting study to be used as an organic fertilizer. Eventhough the NPK value is
considerably low in comparison to chemical fertilizer, the NPK value from this study were found to be
comparable with organic fertilizer. The results indicate that the value will be increased steadily as the compost
process is fully matured.


Nutrient content of fresh, compost, banana wastes and silt soil:
( źródło => https://www.researchgate.net/profil...var-Tabat-Council-for-Innovative-Research.pdf)

Nitrogen (%)
skórki
Nitrogen (%)2.6
Phosphorus (%)0.6
Potassium (%)3.5


skład skórek:

skorki-sklad.jpg



===============================================================================================

ECAM2022-7616452.001.jpg




A na koniec : obrazek ze smietnika.

by: od LukexOG

424630443_122116276448174339_1696130116624241557_n.jpg
 
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kameleonsen

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Dzięki chłopaki :)
Porównując z palm tree ash gk organics, zakładam że można użyć ok 2kg na 100l mieszanki. Zakładam że nie gotowany proszek będzie się dłużej rozkładał i nada się do przygotowania mieszanki ktora będzie służyć za docelowa, tj przesiadka z 3l -->11l i przełączamy.
 

L.a.m.a.

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Chyba najprostszym sposobem na nawóz z bananów stosowany odkąd ludzkość pamięta (jak ktoś bez liścia na głowie to ma prawo nie wiedzieć) to po prostu świeże skórki or banana zalać wodą na kilka dni do 2 tygodni i dodawać do podlewania według uznania. Ciężko będzie coś popalić.
Kiedy stosowałem banany razem z pokrzywą zamiast nawozów typu "grow" miałem najlepsze i największe plony
 

sub23

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Dzięki chłopaki :)
Porównując z palm tree ash gk organics, zakładam że można użyć ok 2kg na 100l mieszanki. Zakładam że nie gotowany proszek będzie się dłużej rozkładał i nada się do przygotowania mieszanki ktora będzie służyć za docelowa, tj przesiadka z 3l -->11l i przełączamy.
Rozumiem, że nie jesteś ani trochę zainteresowany "blenderowaniem" świeżych skórek. :)

Z tabeli która jest up: w suchej masie ->

~10% białka : popiół -> składniki mineralne ~12%

Popiół z palm jest realnie bardzo podobny do popiołu z drewna liściastego raczej :
( edit - nie jest podobny inny skład - i trudno to traktować jako nawóz "organiczny" - mineralny organicznego pochodzenia raczej - do tego do odkwaszania podłoża potencjalnie. )

GK-Organics® Palm Tree Ash to popiół palmowy zawierający znaczną ilość potasu oraz niewielką ilość fosforu i magnezu. Pozostałe składniki pomagają zneutralizować zbyt kwaśny odczyn gleby.

Potas jest jednym z trzech głównych pierwiastków, które wymagane są do prawidłowego wzrostu roślin. Produkt zawiera bardzo dużo łatwo przyswajalnego potasu ( 0-1-30 ) w formie proszku.

palm-ash.jpg


pomyłka : zdecydowanie bogatszy w wapń : i mniej K - zupełnie inne właściwości.

wood-ash.jpg


Chyba najprostszym sposobem na nawóz z bananów stosowany odkąd ludzkość pamięta (jak ktoś bez liścia na głowie to ma prawo nie wiedzieć) to po prostu świeże skórki or banana zalać wodą na kilka dni do 2 tygodni i dodawać do podlewania według uznania. Ciężko będzie coś popalić.
Kiedy stosowałem banany razem z pokrzywą zamiast nawozów typu "grow" miałem najlepsze i największe plony
Na pewno:

Gnojówka z pokrzyw ?


2.4.2. Chemical Composition of Aqueous Nettle Extracts
The acidity (pH) of aqueous nettle extracts was determined according to the HRN ISO 10523:2012 method.
Electrical conductivity (EC) was measured using a Mettler Toledo MPC 227 (Mettler-Toledo Ltd., Columbus, OH, USA) conductivity meter with a cell constant control and temperature compensation device (25 °C) according to HRN EN 27888:2008.
Analysis of NO3-N, NH4-N and o-PO4 was performed with a segmented flow system (SFA) and spectrometric detection using a Skalar San+Analyzer following standard procedures HRN EN ISO 13395:1998, HRN EN ISO 11732:2008 and HRN EN ISO 15681-2:2008, respectively. Determination of K was performed using an AAS PerkinElmer 3110 atomic emission spectrometer following the standard procedure HRN ISO 9964-3:1998.

Data quality control assurance for water analysis was implemented using a quality system accredited to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2007 standard, by participating in the international proficiency testing program, and by using internal reference samples.
The total concentrations of Fe were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) on a Vista MPX AX device (Vista MPX AX, Varian, Palo Alto, Calif.) after microwave-assisted digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3 and H2O2 on a MARS Xpress instrument (CEM, Matthews, NC) in closed TFMs with automatic pressure and temperature regulation (HRN ISO 11466:2004).
The chemical composition of stinging nettle aqueous extracts, depending on the extraction duration time, is shown in Table 3.

ekstrakt.jpg


Wygląda na to, że gdyby to blendować i odlać : będzie N w postaci NO3. Fermentowana strasznie śmierdzi.
Głównie N i K - P mało.

ps: był kiedyś wątek :


Tu było pytanie o blendowanie blendreowanie


Fermented plant ->

 
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Nothern

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A są jakieś prostsze sposoby? Tzn bez "przepisu" na całą stronę tylko "po chłopsku" pokrój banana i wrzuć do ziemi?XDD
 

sub23

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A są jakieś prostsze sposoby? Tzn bez "przepisu" na całą stronę tylko "po chłopsku" pokrój banana i wrzuć do ziemi?XDD

Są nudne jak flaki z olejem. XD i było to 100.000 razy : internet jest pełen tego.

Tak proste, że aż wstyd - podobnie wygląda przygotowanie "kiszonki" czy gnojówki z pokrzyw. Powszechnie stosowana przez działkowców.

Najcześciej stosowane techniki uzycia skórek sprowadzają się do wrzucenia w słoik "butelkę" z wodą skórek i czekania. "Fermentacja".
( czasem zmielone lub i nie po prostu pokrojone drobno na sucho do ziemi - długa mineralizacja - jest w tym sporo "cukrów" - białka i nie mało potasu )

Przynajmniej coś nowego i to w formie - skopiowanej bezczelnie z art. naukowego opartego na praktycznie otrzymywanym nawozie o nieco odmiennej charakterystyce od "fermentu" . Nanomolekularny - chelatowany ( np: sokiem z cytryny ) potencjalnie kompletny nawóz organiczny na cały grow :

Zamiast dodawać mocznik : jak oni => naturalnie wzbogacony : filtrować także nie ma co : a niech sobie będzie i zawiesina.

1. Banany - jako "dodatek" nano
2. Popiół w niewielkiej dawce jako poprawiacz : przy przygotowaniu : bananaów - w blenderze. ( + Wapń : -> i nie tylko )
3. Dostępne naturalne dodatki z NPK -> Bat guano ; kurzak ; krowie łajno suszone granulat; ->susz z pokrzyw- źródło bogate w N
4. Rybie głowy ( fish mix nic nowego )
5. sok z cytryny lub limonki - doprowadzenie pH do rozsądnego poziomu ( lepiej lekuchno kwaśne niż zbyt zasadowe po dodatku popiołu ) - Kwas cytrynowy - cytryniany - działanie chelatujące składniki mineralne. + bufor przy okazji.

Proste do zrobienia - przelania w butle pet i niech sobie gnije i śmierdzi - nie trzeba wszystkiego co się dało by w to wrzucić dawać : Stawiam, że przy małym dodatku "guana" można to by stosować w większych stężeniach. ( w zasadzie w wypadku guana do potraktowania tak samo jak standardowa herbatka z - tylko z dodatkami wzbogacającymi - wydłużającymi działanie )


eherbata-pl-pokrzywa-1.jpg

Pokrzywa (Pokrzywa zwyczajna, Urtica dioca L., suszone liście) – bogata w flawonoidy, sole mineralne i witaminy. Znana z pozytywnego wpływu na zdrowie i od pokoleń używana w medycynie naturalnej. Najczęściej sporządzana pokrzywa w formie naparu, używa się do picia jako herbata z pokrzywy.

Jakie są właściwości herbaty z pokrzywy?

Napar z pokrzywy działa moczopędnie, przeciwzapalnie i odkażająco oraz wspomaga trawienie. Może też mieć właściwości przeciwkrwotoczne. Zawiera dużo żelaza – dlatego też zaleca się picie go przy zaburzeniach miesiączkowania i w wypadku anemii. Pokrzywa poprawia krążenie krwi i ma działanie wzmacniające organizm. Ponadto, pokrzywa ma właściwości obniżające ciśnienie krwi, oraz obniżające poziom cukru we krwi.

nawozy organiczne:
Najciekawiej wyglada tu : kurzak jako dodatek do blendu:

NPK 6:4.47:2,3 -> sporo magnezu i wapnia :

Table 2. Different organic fertilizers commonly applied in organic greenhouse systems and their nutrient content.

Nutrient content (%)
Fertilizer typeAggregationOriginNPKSMgCaFeBZnCuMoMnClReference
Dried chicken manureSolidAnimal64.472.31.13.3Tagoe et al., 2008
Blood mealSolidAnimal12.930.10.280.030.170.390.003Citak and Sonmez 2011
Meat and bone mealSolidAnimal7.884.670.340.210Nogalska et al., 2014
Feather mealSolidAnimal14.20.20.1(Hartz and Johnstone, 2006)
Horn core powderSolidAnimal6.439.410.080.4421Žibutis et al., 2012
Horn shavingsSolidAnimal5.820.050.030.0110.125Žibutis et al., 2012
Crab shell mealSolidAnimal8.21.50.5Gagnon and Berrouard 1994
Digested animal slurryLiquidAnimal0.12–0.910.04–0.260.12–1.50.02–0.040.03–0070.1–0.23Möller and Müller 2012
Fish manureSolidAnimal3.710.70.21.80.190.0160.040.0010.09Ekinci et al., 2019
Fish hydrolysatesLiquidAnimal21.80.8Eaton et al., 2013
Farmyard manure (Dairy cattle)SolidAnimal0.990.472.650.534.250.280.00380.00140.0015Citak and Sonmez 2011
Dried microbial biomassSolidMicrobial70.72Spanoghe et al., 2020
Dried microalgae (Spirulina)SolidMicrobial8.60.30.7Spanoghe et al., 2020
Dried bacteria (Rhodobacter)SolidMicrobial8.52.40.5Spanoghe et al., 2020
VinasseLiquidVegetable1.20.420.60.270.54Sayed and Elazim 2002
White lupin seedsSolidVegetable5.1Müller and von Fragstein und Niemsdorff 2006b
Castor-cake mealSolidVegetable5.7Müller and von Fragstein und Niemsdorff 2006b
Yellow lupin seedsSolidVegetable6.6Müller and von Fragstein und Niemsdorff 2006b
Faba bean seedsSolidVegetable4.5Müller and von Fragstein und Niemsdorff 2006b
Biogas digestate, dewateredSolidVegetable0.50.090.30.050.040.13Bergstrand et al., 2020b
KalimagnesiaSolidMineral24.9176.03Yim et al., 2016

Cow Manure​

Cow manure, also known as dairy manure or cattle manure, is available in large supply in states with strong beef production. Cattle manure is made up of digested grass and grain. It contains about 3 percent nitrogen, 2 percent phosphorus, and 1 percent potassium (3-2-1 NPK).

Kurzak: Kwaśny =>


Chicken Manure

Chicken manure pellets, or poultry manure, are a popular fertilizer for organic farms. Hens will typically consume about twice as much water as feed, which means they produce twice as many fresh droppings as the food they eat. This is great news for farmers because it keeps the price of chicken manure pellets very affordable. The analysis of our chicken manure pellets is typically 5-4-2 NPK. This means that in every ton of manure, there is 5% nitrogen, 4% phosphorus, and 2% potassium.

Poultry manure is highly acidic compared with other organic manures. However, the acidity can be significantly reduced with proper composting, just like any other raw manure. Once the composting process is complete, chicken manure is a completely safe and beneficial fertilizer for organic crops.

rezygnacja z cytryny ? w tym wypadku ? ;)

ptasia-kupa-nazwoz-sklad.jpg



The non-aerated brewing method “passive” for chicken manure tea (CMT) preparation was
used by soaking chicken manure of at least 45 days old obtained from chicken broiler production farm
at the above mentioned experimental and production station, in water with a ratio of 1 : 10 (w/v) in a
200 liter tank, then kept in a shaded area for two days to allow the nutrients in the chicken manure to
leach into the water.
Afterwards, the mixture was filtered through cheesecloth before application to
remove suspended particles to obtain almost a clear solution of chicken manure tea. Chicken manure
tea was freshly prepared for each time of application. Chemical properties for chicken manure and
chicken manure tea are presented in Table 2.
A liquid suspension of effective micro-organisms (EM1) was obtained from The Centralized
Management of Afforestation and the Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation,
Giza, Egypt. It consists of mixed beneficial micro-organisms (photosynthetic bacteria,
Rhodopseudomonas palustrus and Rhodobacter spaeroides; lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus
plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Streptoccus lactis; yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida
utilis; actinomycetes, Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces griseus as well as fermenting fungi,
Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium sp. and Mucor hiemalis (Higa and Parr, 1994).
The seven experiment treatments were applied as follow:
1- Using chicken manure tea without dilution.
2- Using chicken manure tea without dilution + EM1 at rate of 5 cm/l.
3- Using chicken manure tea at 1 : 1 water dilution (v/v).
4- Using chicken manure tea at 1 : 1 water dilution (v/v) + EM1 at rate of 5 cm/l.
5- Using chicken manure tea at 1 : 2 water dilution (v/v).
6- Using chicken manure tea at 1 : 2 water dilution (v/v) + EM1 at rate of 5 cm/l.
7- Using inorganic fertilizers N : P : K at recommended doses (45 N : 60 P2O5 : 90 K 2 O kg/ha) as a
control treatment

kurzak-herbatka.jpg


Propozycja jaka padła : łyżeczka na 0,5/1 litr - jako dodatek do : + bardzo duże rożcieńczenie - da raczej bardzo słabe efekty:
Zbyt wydumane i ostrozne blendy : może do 50 ml /l ? -> takie dodatki jak : proponowane nic nie powinny palić.

@Żool ? ( poza daniem mi standardowego ostrzeżenia za spamowanie : prosze o naprowadzenie na własciwe proporcje )

same fermenty



Forma azotu w kupie kury : trudno dostępna forma.

Abstract​

Osmoregulation in birds is complicated, with different organs acting concurrently to regulate this physiological process. Of particular interest is how the urinary excretions of birds can remove excess nitrogen while minimizing the need for dietary water and balancing the physiological demands of oviparity. It has long been concluded from chemical analyses, and more recently from genetic studies, that uric acid is the principal constituent of urine in Aves. However, research has also demonstrated that waste material may be modified in the ceca immediately prior to it being expelled. Here, we quantify the chemical composition of the urine component of excreta of six avian species using X-ray diffraction techniques to test the hypothesis that it is principally composed of uric acid, as commonly reported. None of the analyzed samples were found to contain uric acid. Instead, a variety of compounds including ammonium urate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), and two unknown compounds, were found. Our results show that the uric acid pathway is indeed the system by which nitrogen is removed in these birds, but that additional modification occurs in the urine prior to excretion. These results raise questions for future research on the urinary excretions of birds, including identification of the unknown compounds found in the present study.



skład bat guano jest obliczalny inaczej


The effectiveness of struvite (insoluble phosphate precipitated from wastewater) as a P source was compared to that of phosphate rock (insoluble), monoam-monium phosphate (soluble) and calcium superphosphate (soluble) by providing each to Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) growing in pots. The doses applied with each source were 0, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 mg of P kg-1 of soil. The plants were cut back six times during the experiment and the dry matter, plant P concentration and accumulation recorded each time. The plant P concentration was greater with all these fertilizers than when no P fertilizer was applied (controls); that achieved with struvite was somewhat greater than that observed with any of the other sources. Increasing the P dose, irrespective of its source, increased plant P concentration and P accumulation at each cutting time, as well as the residual total and available P in the soil after the last cut. No increase was seen, however, in dry matter production. P nutrition with struvite was as effective as with any other source.

Ile P jest w tej formie w kurzaku ? raczej trudno dostepny i wolno działający.


The mineral fertilizer used for the purpose of the present invention may be any proper mineral fertilizer, but is preferably urea, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), ammonia, magnesium sulfate, magnesium chloride, magnesium silicate, dolomite or chrysotyle. The presence of such fertilizers may contribute to the ammoniation of the organic matter and enhances the presence of soluble carbon and of slow-release P sources, such as struvite (NH4MgPO4·6H2O).


Cytat =>

"Obecnie pod względem ekonomicznym produkcja struwitu jest jeszcze nieopłacalna ale w najbliższej przyszłości kiedy ceny nawozów zaczną rosnąć opłacalność procesu stanie się faktem. Struwit jest nawozem prawie doskonałym - oprócz tego, że zawiera dwa podstawowe makroelementy niezbędne do wzrostu roślin, to wykazuje się również odpowiednio niską rozpuszczalnością. Jest więc tzw. nawozem ekologicznym lub inaczej mówiąc nawozem wolnodziałającym ponieważ w środowisku glebowym rozpuszcza się powoli a rośliny same stymulują jego intensywność. W związku z powyższym nie występuje element wypłukiwania jego składników zarówno do wód powierzchniowych jak i do głębszych warstw gleby gdzie mogą stać się niedostępne dla roślin. Jak widać minerał ten może znacząco przyczynić się to rozwiązania wybranych problemów ochrony środowiska naturalnego."

Dobra koniec - i tak nikt nie zaryzykuje sprawdzenia takich cudów. ;)

BioTabs Tabletki - Ciekawe co jest w środku - nie zdiwiłbym sie jesli sie to wsystko sprowadza do mieszanki naturalnych nawozów organicznych : wymienionych niejako przypadkiem w formie off top tutaj.

piszą sami:

The tablets contain a formula of slow-acting organic nitrogen, bone meal fertilizer, blood meal, feather meal, fish meal, natural humic acids and beneficial soil bacteria. The beneficial soil bacteria improve the soil and contribute to the good uptake of the fertilizers, resulting in uniformly healthy growth without leaching of the fertilizers. The unique combination of fertilizers and soil bacteria ensure healthy growth and healthy soil.


0017] Table 1 below illustrates the formulation of the dry ingredients in an organic fertilizer in one embodiment. In one embodiment all ingredients in the organic fertilizer are organic. As depicted the formulation includes a slow release nitrogen source, a nitrogen source, a phosphorous source, a potassium source, a binder, and a chelator. Each of these will be discussed in more detail below.
Figure imgf000006_0001

jakby-biotabs.jpg


In one embodiment blood meal ranges from about 0 to about 85% of the formulation. In another embodiment the blood meal ranges from about 35-65% of the total formulation. In another embodiment the blood meal comprises about 50.0 weight percent of the dry formulation. In one embodiment the blood meal comprises at least greater than 10% nitrogen. In another embodiment the blood meal comprises at least greater than 14% nitrogen. The blood meal can comprise blood from a variety of animals, but in one embodiment the blood meal comprises poultry blood meal. The blood meal can also comprise turkey and porcein blood meal. As used herein blood meal refers to clean fresh blood from an animal exclusive of feathers, hide or skin except in such traces which might occur unavoidably in good manufacturing practices. Moisture can be removed from the blood meal prior to using in the formulation by any conventional method. In one embodiment the poultry blood meal comprises about at least 85% protein, about 3.5 to about 8% moisture, and less than about 1% fat.

[0020] The blood meal can be obtained from a variety of sources. In one embodiment the blood meal is in a powder form. In one embodiment the blood meal is still releasing nitrogen two weeks after application.

[0021] In one embodiment the slow nitrogen source comprises feather meal in an amount of about 1 to about 10% of the formulation. Feather meal provides a slow release nitrogen source which allows for a delayed release of nitrogen. In one embodiment the feather meal comprises at least greater than 8% nitrogen. In another embodiment the feather meal comprises at least greater than 11% nitrogen. Feather meal refers to hydro lyzed clean feathers of poultry exclusive of blood except in traces which might occur unavoidably in good manufacturing practices. In one embodiment the feather meal comprises about at least 80% protein, about 3.5 to about 8% moisture, and between about 8-10% fat. In one embodiment the feather meal is ground to form a powder.

[0022] The feather meal can be obtained from a variety of sources. In one embodiment, the feather meal is still releasing nitrogen six weeks after the application.

[0023] In one embodiment the formulation also comprises an immediate nitrogen source. An immediate source is a source in which the majority of the nitrogen is released within one month after application under normal soil temperatures and conditions. An immediate nitrogen source can comprise some nitrogen which is slowly released, but the bulk of the nitrogen in the immediate nitrogen release is released within three months after application. Thus, a slow nitrogen source may contain both slow release and immediately available nitrogen. For example, blood meal is generally a slow nitrogen source but it may comprise some nitrogen which is more immediately available. Allowing some nitrogen to be absorbed immediately provides flexibility. For example, some plants may require an immediate source of nitrogen but will then not require additional nitrogen until later on in the plant cycle. Being able to control the amount of nitrogen available over time allows the available nitrogen to better mimic the required nitrogen over time.

[0024] In one embodiment the immediate nitrogen source comprises at least about 10% nitrogen. The nitrogen source can comprise a variety of sources. In one embodiment the immediate nitrogen source ranges from about 0 to about 15% of the formulation.

[0025] In one embodiment the nitrogen source comprises fish emulsion powder. A fish emulsion powder is manufactured by mixing fish carcasses with an organic enzyme. Fish emulsion powder provides an immediate release of nitrogen. In one embodiment organic fish protein which has been spray dried and hydrolyzed is utilized. The fish emulsion powder is typically ground and dried before being packaged. Thus, in one embodiment the fish emulsion powder comprises a powder form. In one embodiment the fish emulsion powder is soluble in water and thus has high proportion of water solubility. This is beneficial in that it helps in the delivery of nutrients to the plant following application. Fish emulsion in water is considered an organic ingredient.

[0026] In one embodiment the fish emulsion powder comprises at least about 11% nitrogen. In one embodiment the fish emulsion powder comprises at least about 0.25% P2O5, whereas in another embodiment the fish emulsion powder comprises at least about 1% K20. Accordingly, when used, the fish emulsion powder also provides a source of potassium and phosphorus. As noted, both of these are required by the plant. In one embodiment at least a portion of the potassium and phosphorus in the fish emulsion powder are immediately available for release.

[0027] In one embodiment the formulation comprises a phosphorus source. In one embodiment the phosphorus source accounts for between about 10 to about 50%> of the formulation. In one embodiment soft rock phosphate is utilized. The soft rock phosphate is also known as colloid phosphate and soft phosphate with clay. In one embodiment the soft rock phosphate is sized so that all of the soft rock phosphate passes through a 100 mesh screen. In one embodiment the soft rock phosphate comprises between about 6%> to about 30%> moisture. In another embodiment the soft rock phosphate is mixed with water to make pellets comprising a diameter from about 1/6 of an inch to about 1/3 of an inch. The soft rock more readily turns into an ionic state, which is the only way plants can uptake nutrients. In one embodiment the soft rock phosphate is water soluble. In one embodiment the soft rock phosphate is deemed an organic ingredient.
[0028] In one embodiment the soft rock phosphate comprises about 1% to about 30% available phosphate in the form of P2O5 whereas in other embodiments the available phosphate is between about 2% and 10%. In one embodiment the total phosphate in the form of P2O5 ranges from about 10% to about 50% whereas in another embodiment the total phosphate is between about 15% and 35%. Additionally, in one embodiment the soft rock phosphate comprises between about 10%> and 30%> calcium. Other ingredients such as insoluble phosphate, fluoride, aluminum oxide, and impurities may also be present in the soft rock phosphate.
[0029] In one embodiment the soft rock phosphate is considered a slow release source. In one embodiment the soft rock phosphate is not generally soluble in water. Accordingly, the soft rock phosphate is still releasing nutrients such as phosphate at least two weeks after application. In one embodiment the soft rock phosphate is still releasing phosphate at least six weeks after application. The phosphorus can be added via other sources as well such as humic acid, fish emulsion, crab meal, yucca, sewage sludge, animal manures, and compost.
[0030] As noted in one embodiment the formulation also comprises a potassium source. In one embodiment the potassium source accounts for between about 0 to about 15% of the formulation. In one embodiment sulfate of potash (K2SO4) is utilized. Sulfate of potash, or potash sulfide, is a type of potassium sulfate. Sulfate of potash is a natural potash mineral that contains about 50%> potassium oxide (K20), commonly referred to as potash, and about 50%> sulfate (SO4). Sulfate of potash is a natural, mined, very low chloride form of potassium sulfate that is water soluble. Thus, sulfate of potash is deemed organic. It also promotes the use of nitrogen and other nutrients. Potassium is a component of the fluids which flood plant tissue. Because potassium deficient plants are susceptible to insect attack, disease, etc., potassium helps ensure high quality plants and produce. Sulfur is used by plants in the formation of amino acids, enzymes, and other functions. Sulfate of potash provides both sulfur and potassium. In one embodiment, the sulfate of potash is in a powder form and comprises a moisture content of less than 2%.
[0031] In one embodiment the sulfate of potash is considered an extended release source as it is releasing potassium at least two weeks after application. In one embodiment the sulfate of potash is still releasing potassium at least three weeks after application, whereas in yet another embodiment the sulfate of potash is still releasing potassium at least four weeks after application. Other potassium sources can also be utilized including potassium chloride, bone meal, avian manure, any non-human manure, and seawee
.
[0032] The phosphate and potash offer many benefits. One benefit is the ability to deliver these nutrients to the plant. The soil, like the plant, also demands these nutrients. By concentrating the nutrients, the soil's demand for these nutrients is satisfied with sufficient nutrients remaining to benefit the plant.

[0033] As noted above, in one embodiment the formulation comprises a chelator. The chelator can comprise many different ingredients such as humic acid, potassium humate, fulvic acid, amino acids, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. In one embodiment the chelator accounts for between about 0 to about 3% of the formulation, whereas in other embodiments the chelator accounts for about 1.0% of the formulation. In one embodiment the chelator is water soluble. The chelator stimulates the plant into being ready to absorb nutrients.

[0034] As noted the formulation further comprises a binder. The binder acts to bind all of the dry ingredients when mixed with water. In one embodiment the binder is water soluble. In one embodiment, the binder also functions as a chelator. Thus, upon application of water the binder allows the ingredients to be leached and absorbed individually and at the desired rates. In one embodiment the binder accounts for between about 1% to about 6% of the formulation. In one embodiment the binder accounts for about 3% of the formulation. In one embodiment the binder comprises lignin sulfonate, some examples of which include calcium lignosulfonate, sodium lignosulfonate, sodium oxyligninsulfonate, ammonium lignosulfonate, azo lignosulfonate, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment the binder comprises BorrePlex CA Powder produced by Borregaard Ligno Tech of Rothschild, Wisconsin. BorrePlex CA is a calcium lignosulfonate based product. This binder is deemed organic, and in some cases, is deemed verified organic.

[0035] As will be discussed below, the binder, in one embodiment, holds all of the dry ingredients together in a pellet which has a moisture content of less than about 15% by weight. In one embodiment, upon application of the pellet, the binder acts to wick moisture and bring moisture to the granule. Figures 2A-2D illustrate the transformation of the pellet into a digestible form. Figure 2A is a side profile of a pellet in one embodiment located on the ground. Figure 2B is a side profile of a pellet in one embodiment beginning to wick moisture and bring the moisture into the pellet. This begins the process of turning the pellet into a mush so that it can subsequently crumble. At this point, microbes can attack the granule and convert the nutrients into a water soluble plant accessible form. Figure 2C is a side profile the pellet in one embodiment which has begun to crumble. Figure 2D is a side of the pellet in one embodiment which has crumbled and is converted to a digestible form.
 
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Sub, Twój internet wygląda inaczej od naszego? Masz dostęp do baz Pentagonu? :)

:) Mam odpowiedzieć serio na lekko złośliwy żart ? Szukam

1. Coś jest używane = będzie wzmianka tu: i to nie jedna: https://scholar.google.com/
2. Jeśli na czymś się da zarobić - na 100% coś będzie tu: https://patents.google.com/

Zazwyczaj szukam czegoś ponad to co jest - pierwszym wynikiem - grzebiąc na zasadzie : co jest w środku.

ps: BioTabs -> wszystko co w nich jest przewijało się na forach konopnych wieki temu. I nie tylko forach było często używane wcześniej bardzo powszechnie w ogrodnictwie. Ktoś opracował formuły mieszania składników tak aby przez np. cały okres wzrostu - to co jest w tabletce dostarczało składników odżywczych - Zapewne ze szczytem wydzielania po jakimś czasie. Każdy chce zarobić i jeśli może to najlepiej tak aby nikt mu nie wchodził w paradę - > stąd patent USA. Niestety piszą je często tak aby sie zabezpieczyć nie podając konkretnego składu. Ale to jest chyba wystarczające do zaspokojenia ciekawości czystej.

Z ciekawości popatrzmy na coś jeszcze : i nic nie ma ;D

to co innego:

Tabsy :
hydrolizowane pióra miedzy innymi :



Feather meal, like other processed animal proteins, cannot be used everywhere to feed all species: see Potential constraints and recommendations per species below.
Processes
Hydrolysis

There are several ways to hydrolyze feather keratin and many patents have been registered. A unfavourable effect of thermal and chemical methods of keratin hydrolysis is the destruction of some amino acids, including cystine (Papadopoulos, 1985; Papadopoulos et al., 1986).
Pressure cooking

Pressurized cooking is the primary method of processing used to make feather meal. Feathers are first cooked under steam pressure (for instance for 30-40 min at 143 °C under 3 atm) and then dried (90-110°C for 5 h) (Strzetelski et al., 1999). Increasing steam pressures of 204, 276 or 345 kPa during 30 min, at pH 5.7 or 9, have resulted in increasing pepsin digestibility but also in a lower cystine content of feather meal (Latshaw, 1990). However, it was suggested that sulfur content and bulk density (respectively positively and negatively correlated to nutritive value in poultry) should be used to monitor feather meal quality as there was no indication that high pressure was detrimental to feather meal quality (Moritz et al., 2001).
Acid hydrolysis

Acid hydrolysis of keratin can be done with hydrochloric acid (HCl) or sulphuric acid (1% hydrochloric acid solution, sodium thioglycolate). It is neutralized with salts or gypsum which may result in a product with a high salt content. Acid hydrolysis many not be able to hydrolize more than 54% of keratin (Coward-Kelly et al., 2006).
Alkaline hydrolisis

Alkaline hydrolysis of keratin can be done with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium sulfide or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Feathers in mixture with NaOH were boiled and the mixture at pH 12 was neutralized with HCl to pH 6. During this process, the cysteine was degraded in lanthionine and the hydrolized feather had reduced nutritive value (Csapo et al., 2018). When adding lime (calcium hydroxide) to feathers at 100°C or 150°C, the resulting hydrolysate was rich in amino acids and polypeptides and the hydrolysis of keratin was very effective (95% hydrolysis after 3h at 150°C). Its composition was similar to the protein in soybeans and cotton seeds, and the hydrolysate was reported to be suitable as a diet supplement in feeding ruminants. It was not recommended for monogastric animals due to its low content of arginine, histidine, lysine, methionine and threonine (Coward-Kelly et al., 2006).

Enzymatic hydrolysis


Some bacteria are able to produce feather-digesting enzymes that will convert the protein fraction into a digestible form (Shih, 1993). Three strains of Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus flexus and Bacillus endophyticus) were reported to degrade chicken feathers at rates of 59%, 68% and 47% respectively (Thazeem et al., 2016). A strain of Bacillus aerius was able to degrade efficiently white and black feathers from chickens, ducks and pigeons (Bhari et al., 2018). Fungal keratinase, alkaline protease, or specific microorganisms can be used to hydrolyse feather keratin (Kornillowicz-Kowalska et al., 2011).
Quality

Feather meal should have a high nutritional value, with guarantees regarding its amino acid profile and protein digestibility, regardless of the quality and origin of the starting material. Pepsin digestibility is used as a method of assessing the quality of feather meal. A pepsin digestibility value of 75 % is considered to be a minimum value to ensure that the feather meal has been adequately processed (Vanoverschelde et al., 2018; AAFCO, 2002).




Bez cześciowej hydrolizy zapewne zbyt wolno się rozkładają.

pióra ze starej poduszki : poł na poł wagowo z popiołem ze spalana drewna liściastego. spryskac woda. -> zamknac w stalowym emaliowanym garnku : ubic. Dodac tyle wody aby to było możliwe do podgrzania : ... Ha -> ogrzac do prawie wrzenia tak aby nic nie przyjarać : i zostawic na tydzień : Potem : ..... ;)

Dobra bez żartów.

Bacillus subtilis


1-s2.0-S0301479722019533-ga1_lrg.jpg



1-s2.0-S0960852423015389-ga1_lrg.jpg


Wygląda na to, że wystarczyło by : .... choc pisza w patencie niejasno.

"Prawdopodobne" źródło wolno uwalnianego P w tabletach:





Kolejny produkt:

Breedbros BrosTabs tabletki nawozowe do roślin na cały cykl​


Jeśli chcesz w łatwy i skuteczny sposób nawieźć swoje rośliny to doskonałym rozwiązaniem są wolno-działające nawozy organiczne w tabletkach. Kondycjonują glebę poprzez aktywność mikrobiologiczną, jednocześnie dostarczając roślinom niezbędnych składników odżywczych. To sprawia, że metody rolnictwa ekologicznego są dziecinnie proste zarówno dla początkujących, jak i doświadczonych hodowców.

Tabletki te zawierają nawóz organiczny i pożyteczne bakterie, które są przyjazne dla gleby. Dobrze współpracują z ziemią ogrodową i podłożami z włókna kokosowego. Niezależnie od tego, czy rośliny są w pojemnikach, czy bezpośrednio w ziemi, te tabletki są odpowiednie. Można je stosować do uprawy indoor i outdoor.

Dzięki właściwościom powolnego uwalniania tabletki te zapewniają długotrwałe i równomierne dostarczanie składników odżywczych do roślin. Oznacza to, że nie musisz martwić się o regularne nawożenie, ponieważ tabletki stopniowo uwalniają niezbędne składniki odżywcze, dostosowując się do potrzeb rośliny w miarę jej wzrostu. Zapewnia to optymalne warunki pokarmowe dla roślin, co skutkuje ich zdrowym wzrostem i obfitymi plonami.

Dlatego nawozy organiczne w tabletkach o powolnym uwalnianiu są skutecznym i wygodnym rozwiązaniem w uprawie roślin, pozwalającym zachować ekologiczne metody i osiągnąć doskonałe rezultaty zarówno dla początkujących, jak i doświadczonych ogrodników.

Skład:

Silicium, Czarna kreda, Hityna, Mikroelementy, Makroelementy, Bakterie Bacillus Megaterium, NPK, Organiczny węgiel, Algi morskie.



Fertilizer compositions and methods of making and using same​


Abstract​


Fertilizer compositions for plant production are described, comprised of decontaminated manure and Bacillus spores, preferably a humic acid derived from lignite and, optionally, one or more of N compounds, P compounds, K compounds, and combinations of two or more of these compounds. Preferred compositions are those wherein the ingredients are blended into an admixture resulting in a granular product. Other preferred compositions are those blended into an admixture resulting in a powdered product. Preferably, the ingredients are formed into hardened prills or pellets. Processes for production and use are also presented.




blood meal : suszone zmielone skórki z banana : troche pierza : ta skała wymieniona up: Bakterie - zaszczep ( łatwo dostepne )
Krowieniec : odrobina kurzaka : Mielone pokrzywy :

sprasować... Oj proporcje :lol: Głównie skórki.

w składzie tabletek up: TU
jest w tabeli co była up. - chityna :
Crab shell mealSolidAnimalN 8.2P 1.5K 0.5
Bakterie wymienione poza rozkładem pierza maja pomagać przy występowaniu P w postaci trudno dostępnej ( mielona skała np: => mikroyza - gdy P jest dostępny łatwo - realnie "podobno" nic nie daje - i może nawet rosnąc gorzej : co innego gdy P - jest dostępne w formie trudno przyswajalnej - taki raport mniejszości. - zwiększa dostepnosc P )

popatrzmy:

orgatex.jpg


Składniki:
Produkt ten zawiera mączki lucerny, melasę, tlenek krzemu i pył skalny jako podstawa do dostępnych mikroelementów. Wszystkie składniki są zatwierdzone i ściśle nadzorowane przez brytyjskie Soil Association.

GWARANTOWANA ANALIZA
NPK: 7-6-7 + Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn, Mg, S, Si, Fe

DAWKOWANIE:
Dodaj 1,5ml na 1 litr wody. Najlepiej użyć przy każdym podlaniu przez cały okres życia rośliny.

Roztwór Orgatrex + woda nadaje się do użycia przez okres dwóch dni.

Aby uzyskać jak najlepsze wyniki, połącz ORGATREX z BACTREX i MYCOTREX oraz dokładnie zapoznaj się z broszurami i filmikami instruktażowymi.

??? pył skalny :
to ma za mało NP aby było .... podstawą:

Zatężanie - wchodzi w grę:

Melasa:

Czy jeśli na obrazku jest banan to jest to "częściowo?" ze skórek ? ( żart )

bio-pk-5-8-biotabs.jpg


BioTabs Bio PK 5-8 to w 100% organiczny booster/stymulator kwitnienia dla roślin kwitnących. Jego skład został tak dobrany by wpływał na wysoki plon. Zwiększa produkcję kwiatostanów i sprawia, że rosną one większe, gęstsze i dużo bardziej zbite.

Dawkowanie i skład Biotabs Bio PK 2-5-8​

Poza wysoką dawką naturalnego fosforu i potasu Bio PK 5-8 zawiera również mikroelementy, wapń (2,5%), hormony roślinne (auxyny), melasę, kwas humusowy, witaminy z grupy B oraz witaminę A. Bio PK 5-8 przeznaczone jest do stosowania z nawozami podstawowymi (nie jest samodzielnym nawozem).
Używanie nawozów organicznych pozwoli Ci w pełni cieszyć się naturalnym smakiem i aromatem twoich roślin. Po za tym jest bezpieczne dla nas i naszej planety.
Uprawiając organicznie ograniczasz ryzyko przenawożenia roślin.
NPK 2-5-8
Dawkowanie 1-3ml na 1litr wody.

Melasa - kwas humusowy - dużo wapnia.
2-5-8 :


Mielona pokrzywa na sucho.



Abstract
Experiments were conducted to compare the responses of 4 greenhouse grown herbs to the aqueous extracts and ground leaf material of stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L., as compared with 3 standard organic fertilizers and 1 inorganic fertilizer incorporated into the growth media. Stinging nettle leaf extract and organic fertilizer significantly increased the growth of French tarragon and purple coneflower. Ammonium sulfate produced the most growth in sweet basil. Stinging nettle leaves applied as a dry powder at 16 g/l of soil produced the most growth in parsley. The results indicate stinging nettle, a nitrophilic weed, has the potential to be used as an organic fertilizer to replace other conventional fertilizers.


Do szejka swobodnie można dodać odrobinę łyżeczkę drożdży i zmiksować..


Aprropo tego baciliusa i składu kurzaka

urease, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea, forming ammonia and carbon dioxide.

Nevertheless, B. subtilis was shown to possess a functional urease, and the recombinant enzyme conferred low levels of nickel-dependent activity to Escherichia coli.

Dodatek do szejka z chicken shit - tych bakterii - np ... Z suplementu diety powinien? Powodować powstawanie amoniaku z ... I? ( Konfabuluje)

Pora spać.

Pozdr.

ps: proporcje dawkowanie "szejka" z bananów i dodatków są bardzo zachowawcze : "stawiam", że w gotowych ciekłych organicznych - jest wszystkiego zdecydowanie więcej. ( to realnie bardziej nuda i trolling + ciekawość - jest filmik o suszonych skórkach - tu : ten typ od gotowania




Pierwszy artykuł - trzeba popatrzeć ile dają - poza tym interesującobwyglada produkcja "herbatki" z kurzaka - wspomagana bakteriami.

Wiking :thumbs-up-smiley-em




Kurczak


Popiół drzewny


Fish hydrolizat


:) pasja


Human fertilizer


Wykopki



 
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Inne skórki => preparaty i wyniki:

Application Of Different Fruit Peels Formulations As A Natural Fertilizer For Plant Growth

Abstract: Fruit peels of Banana, Pomegranate, Sweet lime and Orange are highly rich in potash, ion, Zinc etc. Above fruit peels powder were formulated from the trace amounts and gradually increased for the preparation of three formulations as Formulation 1, Formulation 2 and Formulation 3. Three different formulations were applied for plant growth in two methods such as fruit peel powder, fruit peel powder extract as a natural fertilizer. Fenugreek seeds were used to test the utilization of fruit peel powder as a natural growth enhancer. After 45 days of application of fertilizer, plant growth was measured and the yield of fenugreek vegetables was counted. Among the three formulations of fruit peel powder and fruit peel extract, formulation 1 was found more suitable for plant growth. Cheapest and harmless materials were used in the present investigation​

001.jpg
002.jpg
003.jpg
004.jpg
005.jpg

Preparation of Fruit Peel Extract

Different formulation of fruit peel powder was used to compare the plant growth. Each formulation was mixed with water in different quantities. 1g of fruit peel powder of pomegranate, orange, sweet lime, banana were taken in 100 ml of distilled water and mixed thoroughly for the preparation of extract. This mixture was stirred for 3 days by using magnetic stirrer. This was considered as F1. 3g of fruit peel powder of pomegranate, orange, sweet lime, banana were taken in 300 ml of distilled water and mixed thoroughly for the preparation of extract. This mixture was stirred for 3 days by using magnetic stirrer.

cut:

From this research, the fruit peel powder extract increased the growth of plants and yield and the leaves of the plants were remaining green till
harvesting. Additionally growth of microorganisms were also increased by the application of fruit peel powder and extract. In addition fruit peel powder can be used for the preparation of tissue culture media. This research reveals that the media which was prepared by using fruit peel powder induced the shoots from Vinca rosea. This research concludes that the chemical fertilizers can be replaced by the fruit peel powder and extract to protect the soil from the infertility.



STUDY ON THE USE OF BANANA AND PINEAPPLE PEEL WASTE AS BIOFERTILIZERS: ENHANCING SOIL FERTILITY, PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
M. Mustapha*, J. J. Alasa, A. U. Bashir and B. Mohammed
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Resources Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria


Indiscriminate agricultural waste disposal especially fruits peels can cause environmental pollution with increased public health risk. This study deals with managing banana and pineapple peel waste as organic fertilizers towards promoting sustainable environmental sanitation and agriculture production. Waste of banana and pineapple peels were separately collected in households, dumpsites and markets, the collected fruits peels were cleaned, sun dried for 33 days and grounded into powdered form. Three different formulations of organic fertilizers were made from the sun dried and finely grounded fruit peels of banana and pineapple, namely; formulation A containing 100g of banana peels powder; formulation B containing 100g of pineapple peels powder and formulation C containing 100g of a mixture of banana and pineapple peels powder. Four different containers were used to collect 10kg of soil each, three of which were treated with the three formulations and named sample A, B, C and an additional sample D which is control. After 30 days of treating the soil with the different formulations. The result of laboratory soil analysis showed that; Sample A contains 14% Nitrogen, 37% Phosphorus, 7% Potassium, 40% Calcium and 2% Magnesium. Sample B contains 11% Nitrogen, 39% Phosphorus, 8% Potassium, 39% Calcium and % Magnesium. Sample C contains 17% Nitrogen, 35% Phosphorus, 4% Potassium, 43% Calcium and 1% Magnesium. Sample D (Controlled Soil Sample) contains 1% Nitrogen, 17% Phosphorus, 4% Potassium, 45% Calcium and 33% Magnesium. It was revealed that the fruit peel powder formulations can increase the soil fertility which serves as alternative replacement for chemical fertilizers towards sustainable agriculture and the environment. It is recommended that the farmers and general public should make beneficial use of fruits waste as organic fertilizers and not to be discarded indiscriminately.

2.2. Extraction of fruit peel waste

Waste of banana and pineapple peels waste were separately collected in households, dumpsites and markets, the collected fruits peels were rinsed adequately in running tap water of debris, sand and foreign materials, the cleaned peels were cut into small pieces (1-5cm) and sun dried for 33 days, which were then ground into powdered form, sieved and stored at room temperature, each of pineapple and banana extract were prepared Separately and an additional preparation containing a mixture of pineapple and banana. Figures 1 and 2 show the banana peel and Pineapple peel powders.​



mało dali:

Collected fruit peels were cleaned and foreign materials were removed. Then the peels were cut in to small pieces of 1-5 cm and air dried under natural sunlight for 20 – 25 days. Thereafter, the dried fruit peels were powdered using a grinder separately. Subsequently those were sieved separately using sieve of 2 mm in size and stored at room temperature (Jariwala and Syed, 2016). After that 1 g of banana, pomegranate and orange peel powder each were measured separately and filled into pots and sealed air tightly. Also mixtures of 0.5 g of banana and 0.5 g pomegranate peel powders and 0.5 g of banana and 0.5 g orange peel powders were sealed separately in the similar manner and labeled for
later identification.
Pots with 45 cm height and 30 cm diameter were used in this experiment. Pots were prepared by adding equal volume of soil and inorganic and fruit peel powders were applied as per the treatments. Two days after scarified okra seeds were sown at two seeds per bag with 1-2 cm depth. All agronomic practices were followed as per recommendations of the Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka except fertilizers. 80% water holding capacity was maintained in all pots. Growth and yield parameters were measured using destructive sampling method. Collected data was analyzed using parametric and nonparametric statistics.​
 
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Ja pie***le padło pytanie o skórki od bananów a tu się aula mgr inż doktorów zrobiła 😂
 

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Ja pie***le padło pytanie o skórki od bananów a tu się aula mgr inż doktorów zrobiła 😂

Daruj sobie sarkazm.🤣

Asystent wyszukiwania AI F# - pokopał w necie.

Zainteresowanie "naukowców" tym bierze się między innymi z potrzeby pozbycia się dużej ilości odpadów. Niektóre art. są z krajów "3 świata".

A z tych wszystkich zebranych różności najciekawszy jest pan wiking z jego metoda fermentacyjna z bakteriami kwasu mlekowego na całych bananach. ( na skórkach pewnie także podziała )
Prawdopodobnie nieco przegina mówiąc, że inne przepisy nie działają. Ale - technika fermentacyjna z dodatkiem melasy z całych bananów wygląda ok. Dodaje do "B" bardzo dużo składników mineralnych zawartych w melasie - a na końcu zaleca jeszcze przy mieszaniu wody do podlania dodatek - własnego wyrobu nawozu z popiołu. Ma to być dobra mieszanka na kwitnienie - w tekście pojawia się i fragment o wiadomych roślinach także. Po takiej obróbce należy się spodziewać bardzo dobrej dostępności składników. Produkt ma być raczej dosyć ubogi w N.​

( co nie jest absolutnie odpowiedzą na pytanie ile suszonych - a o to chodziło w wątku - zapewne miedzy 1 a 10 g /l ziemi - jest i link do człowieka co stosował to razem z asvitem - mającym być naturalnym nawozem sypkim - z bakteriami - co zapewne dodatkowo poprawia dostępność składników z i rozkład )

Ten ( co by było łatwiej namierzyć w stercie " różności " )


Poza tym => Z bakteriami kwasu mlekowego : co się przewija u wikinga i nie tylko. z F# lekko odbiegające od typowego moczenia w butelce.

Mam dla Was alternatywną wersję gnojówki z bananów. Do wykonania w domu(!)
Potrzebujemy skórek bananów, LAB (bakterie kwasu mlekowego), pojemnik np5 litrów i rurkę fermentacyjną.
LAB sobie zrobicie w domu w ciągu kilku dni: odchlorowana woda, w niej płuczemy zwykły ryż i te popłuczyny wlewamy do słoika, odkładamy w ciemne miejsce i jak zmieni kolor na taki żółto-zielon(zazwyczaj) - jest gotowe. Dokładna instrukcja no googlu i youtube -

Więc tak, pakujemy skórki do baniaka, zalewamy odchlorowaną wodą, dodajemy trochę LAB (50 mililitrów powinno być ok), Zostawiamy otwarte na 2-3 dni, zakładamy rurkę fermentacyjną i możemy to trzymać minimum 6 miesięcy. Tyle ma mój testowy wywar, nic nie śmierdzi (!), jak odkręce korek i powącham to czuje zapach słodkich bananów. ..... Tak wygląda testowy wywar nastawiony w styczni tego roku. Sorry za jakość fotki.
Nie wiem czy LAB nie jest do zastąpienia np:


ps: suszona pokrzywa - np: herbata ziołowa z niej -> według jednego z tekstów up. Użyta może być w ilości 10g/l substratu. ( użyli 16 - nie 10 ). Pokrzywy z kolei są bogate w N.

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kaszel

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Skórki wysusz w piekarniku zrobią się czarne podczas tego procesu wyjmij zmiel lub po krusz ręcznie stosuj według uznania. Ja dawałem dwie garści pod krzaka na flo jako dodatek i było dobrze. Z fartem
 



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